Wednesday, 30 January 2013

Indus valley civilisation contribution of Indigenous communities

Without any prejudice an open mind if we are curious to explore and learn then is always awesome because we get all the answers what we are looking for. After reading about the Indus valley civilisation came to know that indigenous people of Indus valley were the one who contributed for the development of Indus valley which was far advanced then UK of that time.

This morning I came across reading the "Kirat-Nepal history time line" and found below information which might be thoughtful to all of us.

But I just wonder WHO are the Kirant in the present day Nepal context because as far as I understand I consider RAI is Kirant! I think I'm wrong in my understanding due to my ignorance. Would appreciate if someone concerned scholars or people help me to understand about this. Thank you!!

2000 BCE: Kiratas was living at Indus-Saraswoti region. (Prof. Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, 2002)
To be more exact, Kirat ancestral homeland was in Sapta Sindhu (present day Jammu Kashmir and Himachal in northwest India), which was called Indus-Saraswoti Region over 5000 years ago.

The Battle of the Ten Kings (dasarajna) for territory and ideology took place. It is mentioned in the Rigveda. The 7th Mandala of the Rigveda contains references to the Battle of the Ten Kings (notably hymns 18 and 83), where king Suda defeated a confederation of hostile Aryan and Dasyu tribes. In other word the battle of the Ten Kings was between Aryan(conform with vedic teachings) and those who did not. Kiratas joined the "Dasyu" or simply the group who had different ideology from vedic culture.

The famous war between Kirat emperor Sambara and king Divo-das of Sindhu-Saraswoti Region is described even in Rigveda. Lord Indra is highly praised in the Rig-Veda for helping King Divo-dasa in this famous war. Sage Bharadwaja was Divo-dasa's royal priest. He had ordered the King, to eliminate Kiratas and keep fighting till the time not a single Kirata is in existence in the northern frontier of Sapta Sindhu (Jammu Kashmir and Himanchal of present day). This is how the Aryans of Early Rig-Vedic times kept on moving towards the east,fighting both with Kiratas as well as Nishadhas(Indo-austroloids).

After the first Great war,
---> Kiratas Long painful march to the east of Himalayas and arrived in present day Northeast India(Assam & Sikkim) around 1100BCE--1000BCE.

700 BCE: Kirat arrived at Kathmandu valley(present day Nepal) and started a Kirat dynasty.(Baburam Acharya)
1st Kirati King Yalambar. Fought in the second Great war, (the battle of Kurukshetra) of Mahabharata. Yalambar was killed by Krishna but stop the conquest of vedic Aryan expansion into Himalayas region for awhile.

563 BCE: Prince Siddhartha Gautama (Lord Buddha) was born in Lumbini, south Nepal. He was born into King Suddhodana Gautama and his queen Mayadevi, rulers of the Shakya tribe of Kapilavastu region near Lumbini. He came to Kathmandu valley with his several disciples during the rule of the 7th Kirati ruler, King Jitedasti.

239 BCE: During the 14th Kirati King Sthunko, the Indian Emperor Ashoka visited Kathmandu Valley with his daughter, princess Charumati. During his stay in the valley, he had four stupas built in four directions and one in the centre of Patan. The stupa still stand in the Patan outside Lagankhel market.

6th BCE: During the rule of 15th Kirat King Jinghri, another religious doctrine Jainism was being preached by Mahavira in India. In this regard, Acharya Bhadrabahu, a disciple of Mahavira came to Nepal. But comparatively, Jainism could not gain popularity like Buddhism in Nepal.

4th BCE: The term "Nepal" first start to appear in 'Atharva Parishista'.
All along before 4th BCE, the Himalayas region from Himachal Pradesh(northwest India) Nepal(central) to Tripura( northeast India ) and all the way to Chittagong(Bangladesh) in the south was referred as "Kirat Desa"or land of Kiratas.

300AD: Invasion of Licchavis from northern India started.
The 28th Kirati King Paruka was at the throne when the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he successfully repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from Gokarna. He had built a royal palace called "Patuka" when he shifted to Shankhamul. Today this royal palace "Patuka" is no more to be seen now except its ruins in the form of mound. But Patuka had changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town.

330AD: The last King of the Kirat dynasty was Gasti.
He was a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirat dynasty that had lasted for about 1225 years.
Kiratis fought bravely to protect their Kingdom in the Kathmandu valley against the Invasion of Licchavis and in doing so many were killed. For instance, there is a neighborhood in the northern part of Patan city known as Chyasal. It is said that here, 800 (chyasa in Newari is 800) Kirati warriors fell to the invading Licchavis.(Tiwari, 2001)
Many more were killed around the towns, forest, rivers and hills of ancient Kathmandu valley while fighting the invaders from northern India but were eventually overrun by the Licchavis who were simply too big in numbers

After the defeat,
---> Kirat again painful march in search for new settlements.
Kirats moved to the Eastern hills of Nepal and settled down divided into small principalities. Their settlements were divided into their regions, i.e. 'Wallokirat' that lied to the East of the Kathmandu, 'Majkirat' or Central Kirat region and 'Pallokirat' that border with Sikkim. These regions are still heavily populated by Kirats today.

The two long painful march in search of new land shows that Kirat people are resilient and independent. Kiratis did not like living under the invaders and instead move on.

1774 AD: 'Pallokirat'(strong hold of Limbus, Lepchas, Dhimal) was the last of 3 Kirat Kingdoms to sign treaty with Gorkha King P.N Shah to form modern Nepal. The other 2 Wallokirat(stronghold of Sunuwar, Thami, Chepang, Hayu) & Majkirat(stronghold of Rais & Yakkha ) had signed the treaty by 1769 AD.

The only reason why Gorkhali King Prithvi Narayan Shah was able to unify the 3 Kirat Kingdoms to form modern Nepal was due to a dissent among the 3 Kirat Kingdoms. Had the 3 Kirat Kingdoms united against the invasion of P.N Shah, Nepal would have been a different story today. Therefore by taking advantage of the situation, P.N Shah captured Wallokirat first. This act of terror surprised Rais & Yakkhas of Majkirat that P.N Shah was capable of doing such heinous act. Rais & Yakkha declare war on P.N Shah and his army. After series of battle P.N Shah troops was depleted and was on the verge of loosing. But P.N Shah brought more reinforcement from the Kathmandu and the west Nepal. He made use of Magars and Gurung men whom he had captured in Gorkha and surrounding areas in west Nepal to fight the Rais & Yakkhas for Majkirat. Finally peace was negotiated and treaty signed with P.N Shah by the ruler of Majkirat.

All this awhile, P.N Shah had used guns and muskets he had acquired after invading the Kathmandu valley. The British Government who were ruling in India was trading with the Newar of Kathmandu valley. So after capturing the Kathmandu valley, P.N Shah and his troops also got guns and muskets Newar had got from the British. With that, P.N Shah set his eyes towards the Kirat Kingdom lying east of Kathmandu. After bringing Wallokirat and Majkirat to the treaty table, P.N Shah headed to land of Limbus, Lepchas and Dhimal in Pallokirat.

There he had more bitter confrontation especially with Limbus("an archer, or bearer of bow and arrows" in the Kirati name) are famed for their archery. P.N Shah armies used the same warfare tactics again using guns and muskets but this was not a problem for Kirat-Limbus. The Limbus made Shah armies fled in terror several times with their skills and accuracy in using their conventional bow and arrow.

Every Nepali history student knows the circumstances under which the Kirat Kingdoms were brought under the over lordship of P.N Shah if the truth was told.The truth was that it was through the treaty and not by the conquest that P.N Shah was able to capture 3 Kirat's Kingdom and formed a modern Nepal in 1774.

To mark the occasion, King Prithvi Narayan Shah had issued under his Lal Mohur (Red Seal) the following decree:

"We have conquered your country although you had fought valiantly in its defense. We hereby pardon all your war crimes. Protection of you and your kinsmen will henceforth be our responsibility. You will continue to enjoy whatever customs and traditions, rights and privileges you have hitherto enjoyed as long as this world remains in existence. If ever, me or any of my descendants were to deprive you of these rights and privileges that we are now confirming upon you, may the curse of my own ancestors and gods befall upon me and my pro-genies and destroy us."

With this the Gorkha King gave full autonomy and land ownership(Kipat) to Kiratis as issued under the Lal Mohor. However, he made a simple demand on the Kiratis that they accept new identity to mark the occasion; thus Khambu Rai were given a new title of Jimdar, Yakthumba Limbu became Subba, Yakkha Rai became Dewan, Sunuwar Rai became Mukiya, Rong Pa became Lepcha and so on.

But true enough the descendants of Prithvi Narayan Shah went back against their promises.

The Singha Durbar (literally, Lion Palace) in Kathmandu is the official seat of government of Nepal. A substantial portion of the Singha Durbar was destroyed by fire in 1973 but the fact was that it was deliberately set on fire to destroy all Treaty, Legal document between Kirat & King Prithvi Narayan Shah.

According to the work "Nepali Rajniti ma Adhekhai Sachai"(Hidden facts in Nepalese Politics) by Gopal Gurung, many of the original Kirat religion and culture was banned during the Rana government and all sort of Kiranti documents were burned and destroy which the office used to call Jatiya nasta bivag.

And for over 200+ years, though Kirat history so rich, colorful and mesmerizing was hidden from the Nepalese and to the world. This was partly because the previous Shah and Rana rulers who are Hindus did not respected the Kirat's culture while they were deeply rooted in championing their history which was only of 200+ years old. Kirat's history was never taught in Nepal school fully. Though the Nepali history class mentioned about Kirat, the book always stop it by saying "Not much is known about them" and goes on to Licchavis era, Thakuri era, Malla era and finally Shah and Rana era. Licchavis, Thakuri, Malla, Shah and Rana history are mentioned the most in Nepal's history class because these are all Hindus. But the mostly Shah and Rana gets all the credits for nations building and even a museum is built in honor to all the Shah and Rana rulers when the fact was that it was during the 240 years of Shah and Rana period, Nepal as a nation went downhill. Caste system flourished as Nepal was declared a Hindu Nation by the Shah rulers. As for the indigenous communities of Nepal who are not even Hindus, they were discriminated in every field especially in running of Nepal. Nepal became one of the poorest nation and the state it is right now is largely accredited to the Hindu Shah and Rana government who discriminated the indigenous communities. The Shah and Rana rulers made Nepal as a tool for making money for them but not for the nation. But this is another side of the story.


1. Temples of the Nepal valley By Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, 2009

2. The brick and the bull: an account of Handigaun, the ancient capital of Nepal By Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, 2002

3. The ancient settlements of the Kathmandu Valley By Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, 2001 In The Kingdom Of The Gods By Desmond Doig, 1999

4. History of Nepal By Shew Shunker Singh, Gunanand and Daniel Wright, 1966 and in the articles "A victim of the Mahabharata" of NepaliTimes, ISSUE #29 (09 FEB 2001 - 15 FEB 2001)

5. The Vedic-Aryan Entry Into Contemporary Nepal [A Pre-Historical Analysis Based on the Study Of Puranas] By Shiva Raj Shrestha "Malla" with support from the "ANCIENT NEPAL"

6. Journal of the Department of Archaeology, (Number 147, June 2001)

Excerpted from

As soon as I posted above status on my facebook wall one of my Indian friend, Mr. Vinod Kr (with no surname) commented and had long discussion as below.

  • Vinod Kr
     not all the answer
  • Boz Raj ..... बाबै यस्तो कुरा [To be more exact, Kirat ancestral homeland was in Sapta Sindhu (present day Jammu Kashmir and Himachal in northwest India] नगर्नुस, किराँत हरुले मार्लान, LOL! नेपाल का ठेट आदिबासी हामी किराँती नै हौँ भनेर बाहुन क्षेत्री को दोहोलो काढ्ने ले आफू पनि बाहुन क्षेत्री जस्तै भारत बाटै आएको भन्ने कुरो सुने भने त यो किताव जलाउलान नि!..... Babai yasto kura [ancestral homeland To be more exact, in Sapta Sindhu (Kirat was present day Jammu Kashmir and Himachal in northwest India] nursing, kiran heller marlin, LOL! Nepal is already the man of thet bhaner adibasi doholo the kadhne bahn kshetri kiranti take aphu haun is in India such as batai aeko bahn kshetri, jalaulan this kitav r kuro is heard!(Translated by Bing)
  • Vinod Kr some time we dont get all answers we are looking for?
  • Laxmi Tamang I'm optimistic so I'm looking forward to get the answer some time some days since it is the matter of time. I might not get it now but will definitely will get from the concern people I suppose. 
    2 hours ago · Like · 1
  • Vinod Kr cant world be one country having one religion (humanity) ,one language,one economy,harmony and peace?
    2 hours ago · Unlike · 2
  • Laxmi Tamang It can't be because we are very different and unique by nature since that's why nature has created us. However, it can be done with tremendous effort as well unless and until we don't have preachers who are after holding POWER or if all preachers decide to have one religion (Humanity) but is like a day dream expectation I suppose since everyone thinks MY WAY IS HIGH WAY!!
  • Vinod Kr human mind is the reason behind every problem as well as every solution
  • Vinod Kr why u read history ? to fight or to learn for positive development?
  • Dravin Bahadur Shrestha Exactly, everything around us is different but they co-exist which is also knowwn as compatibility. So, utopian ideology of seeing everything as one, intact is absolutely ridiculous as long as we crave for sensual pleasure, material comfort and various other unconditional things.
  • Vinod Kr union is strength ,division is weakness
  • Dravin Bahadur Shrestha Yeah, I have read that in school.
  • Dravin Bahadur Shrestha One language, one economy is possible but the rest, sorry, I don't think so.
  • Laxmi Tamang Vinod Kr bro if you don't know the proper root (history of your origin) then how do you flourish and bloosm (growth and develop) with false belief of your origin (root). To grow proper ferlization need to be place on the root by identifying first the root then only we can feel condient learning the lesson from past acknowledging at present and striving to move forward with bold stand. History is all about lesson and reality which you can't learn from the present or future.
    about an hour ago · Edited · Like · 1
  • Vinod Kr tree having roots in the present soil might be migrated from another soil or seeds may be came from different location-dispersal of seeds
  • Laxmi Tamang I hope this statement by a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator, Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) might gives you bit insight for you Vinod Kr bro, "A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots."
  • Laxmi Tamang It doesn't matter from where at present came since it is an evolution but must identify whether or not it is hybrid or local (original)
  • Vinod Kr i am having the family tree of 13 generation,after that i have to go another location ,then another location ,dont know how many location i have to go
  • Vinod Kr go to another geographical location to find my roots
  • Laxmi Tamang Good! But in the context of Nepal false information has been preaching so that is not tolerable thus trying to find out root of every tree to flourish and grow based on how strong their roots was.
  • Laxmi Tamang I don't care about my root since I know about my origin and root thus became bold to stand from my root of origin! 
    about an hour ago · Edited · Like · 1
  • Vinod Kr people keep on migrating for survival
  • Soun Chhantyal So what's the moral of story? What we want to prove? I mean its good to know the real history. But does the fact here (if its genuine) is good enough to accuse King P.N. Shah of 'war crime'?
  • Vinod Kr no one can know the roots
  • Laxmi Tamang Yes but that has to be acknowledge but some they don't like to acknowledge and claimed their own
  • Laxmi Tamang History is always written by victor so always read false history thus trying to find out the truth because I was not satified in what I was preached from the school books.
    about an hour ago · Edited · Like · 1
  • Vinod Kr land is not made by human
  • Laxmi Tamang Exactly but claimed as their own
  • Vinod Kr every human has equal right on land ,water,air etc
  • Soun Chhantyal And I guess its because of that 'war criminal' and his false history that we call ourselves Nepalese.
  • Laxmi Tamang Yes but some like to controlled. Infact, only equal right it is free as well such as air and water no need to purchase from the earth but has to purchase by money hungeriers
  • Vinod Kr see world as a one country
  • Vinod Kr division is the main problem
  • Laxmi Tamang Hahahahaha! Easy to each and see but hard to apply since you are not allow to travel freely as you wish for Vinod ji
  • Vinod Kr division creates fight
  • Laxmi Tamang We've been enough divied by promoting caste system and gender based discrimination
  • Laxmi Tamang Better stop teaching instead act for applying
  • Vinod Kr oneness will give peace and harmony
  • Laxmi Tamang STOP division by caste on caste, religion and gender
  • Vinod Kr there is no surname behind my name
  • Laxmi Tamang But you have in your mind
  • Laxmi Tamang That's hypocrisy
  • Laxmi Tamang Danger than virus
  • Laxmi Tamang WHY hide
  • Laxmi Tamang We've to face the reality and fact
  • Dravin Bahadur Shrestha Vinod Kr I don't know which school of thought you come from but you are pathetic.
  • Vinod Kr how can u say that?
  • Laxmi Tamang and change the society and mindset from where we are
  • Laxmi Tamang From your writing and thoughts
  • Vinod Kr trying to change my mindset laxmiji
  • Vinod Kr i was condtioned as newari person
  • Vinod Kr now i dont think so
  • Laxmi Tamang No one became a good person just by changing their name or surname after all ACTION speaks Louder than voice/words and I've noticing your action since last few days commenting on my status with your prejudice mindset and in a hypocrite manner
  • Vinod Kr i see every human being is equal
  • Laxmi Tamang Seeing and behaving are two different things
  • Laxmi Tamang I see one universe, one world, one human being, one religion, etc but in reality it is not like that
  • Vinod Kr peace is only possible that way
  • Laxmi Tamang We've to live and survive and let live based on the reality and present back learning the lesson from the past but striving for better future from past pain and suffering
  • Laxmi Tamang Peace is in MIND you can't get peace in the world in any cost unless and until we don't change our mindset and accept the fact because only keeping us in fanstasy world is living in an illusion and delusion and I like to live in a reality and facts
  • Dravin Bahadur Shrestha Vinod Kr ji, After I learned Pragya Paramita Sutta and applying it to the real life I realized that everything around us is a void. And it is actually. But, until or unless everyone does not realize it, this world seems to be divided, unique, amazing, hellish, divine, etc which reflects the personality and characteristic of oneself.
  • Laxmi Tamang Vinod Kr bro don't talk big big things just try to create peace in India in your holy land from where you belong to. Then may be Nepal and Pakistan might learn from India then that's how PEACE will flourish across the world with ACTION!! TRY to createpeace starting from one city where women and girls can live and work peacefully rather than FEAR then whole India will be peaceful nation and her neighbouring countries will learn the lesson as well. I believe in ACTION rather than REACTION!
    about an hour ago · Edited · Like · 1
  • Laxmi Tamang Soun Chhantyal ji your mindset is prejudice with full of negativity thoughts rather than trying to look at things differently wearing the social justice lenses regarding the history what we've read which is half truth. I never ever believed that PN Shah won the war with Britishers because just with Kukuri HOW he can defeated Britishers who captured India, Malaysia, Singapore, Burnei, Hong Kong, and many African nations. I was always skeptical and wondering there MUST be some conspiracy behind and I was right because now I got different perspective knowing and learning about his cunning tricks and tactics since "History is written by the winners." as said by Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) and also by Winston Churchill (1874-1965)- "History is written by the victors." “History is fables agreed upon.” as Voltaire (1694-778), a French Philosopher and Writer said. In the case of PN shah he Genocide Kathmandu valley and else people as per the advice of British Officers like Captain Ceane of the East India Company. And we've to accept this bitter fact rather than insisting and shouting saying that HE was a GREAT FATHER of UNIFICATION OF Nepal. He might be great for someone BUT not ALL Nepalese whose ancestors had been GENOCIDE. Yes, now I'm a Nepali because I belong to the nation where PN Shan owned the land defeating others with cheated tricks and tactics. Even if he wouldn't have owned defeating others then that still I would the citizen of any nation anyway since I would have been born in any nation. So WHY I should care whether I'm Nepali or Indian or else since I would have get any nationality anyway but still will try to understand the truth. NO KNOW is saying that PN Shah is a war criminal. I think you might thought in that way in your subconscious mind thus you vomit your thoughts in such a way. I'm just sharing to open our blocked mind to make us think differently just not with blur vision. “You have to know the past to understand the present.”- Dr. Carl Sagan (1934-1996) an American Astronomer, Writer and Scientist. Here is the another half truth of the story of HOW PN Shah defeated with British.

1 comment:

  1. Nishant Balgovind16 January 2014 at 08:50

    Hi Laxmi...

    Please let me know where is the word kirat, Kirata, Kiranti etc written in Rigveda...

    Nishant Balgovind