Thursday, 23 June 2016

Brahmin contribution for the promotion of Buddhism in ancient time

As per the Indian philosophical scriptures such as Mahabharat, Manusmriti (also known as the law of Manu), Bhagawad Gita including others the top most caste that is consider in Hindu society is Brahmin (the caste as per the caste system coined by sage Manu who is considered first man on this earth) based on the skin colour "White" who are born from Brahma, the creator's mouth and their main duty includes priesthood, teacher, adviser and administrator. 
Observing, hearing and reading about their practices and belief related to faith in Nepal and India I used to think that Brahmins are only Hindu. My elder sister, who became Buddhist Nun in 2005 brought his Guru (teacher), a Buddhist Monk who belong to Brahmin caste, Timilsina surname from Sindhupalchowk district of Nepal. My sister told me his story saying that he has been threaten from Brahmin community for becoming a Buddhist Monk. It was a great surprise for me how any Brahmin member can become such a renowned Buddhist Monk "Khenpo" in Nepal. I could not believe. Since then I had the question in my mind about Brahmin and Buddhism. During my study in Australia from Feb 2011 to March 2015 many questions that I had in my mind related to marginalisation and deprivation of Tamang and high prevalence of girls trafficking in Tamang ethnic, Brahmin and Buddhism, the root cause of gender-based discrimination as a fruit, how self transformation can be obtained, and many more that I had related to religion, discrimination, deprivation, underdeveloped, and so forth for almost all I was able to get satisfactory answer based on the evidence. Some of the information that I thought like sharing I used to share from the facebook status and some of the facebook users who belong to Brahmin caste group used to threaten and accuse me saying Bhoteni (Tibetan), Bhalu (Prostitute), Anti- Brahmin, Anti-Hindu and Anti-men. 
Being a female from Tamang ethnic background who belong to Tibeto-Burmese language speaking community it was acceptable for me to be threatened and accused by Indo-Aryan language speaking community member, Brahmin since they are not aware and informed about historical background due to the tendency not to dig out fact, truth and reality for the sake of humanity either because of their own ignorance or fear of destroying their cultured cemented frozen beliefs and thoughts indoctrinated during early childhood on the process of socialisation. 
Acknowledging the fact, truth and reality what Arthur Schopenhauer, (1788–1860), a German philosopher, best known for his 1818 work "The World as Will and Representation" had said,
"All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident." 

However, sometime I used to ignore the commentators and sometime I used to respond them with more information based on the available evidence. To discuss and debate on social media like facebook about different pertinent issues  that are doing more harm and damage to human society I found it very safe, secure and comfort space because no one can harm physically but could harm psychologically if we are suffering from our own ignorance. I came to realised that before 1st AD Tibeto-Burmese origin people had nothing to do with Buddha teachings since almost all, it is said around 45% Buddha students and followers were Brahmins and rest were else. 

Also as per the historical evidences there were many Brahmins who promoted Buddhism in Asia in ancient time. But after Indian philosopher, Adi Shankaracharya put effort to abolish Buddhism then both in India and Nepal in 9th century started to hate Kshatriya king's son Gautam Buddha philosophy and those who follow Buddha thoughts. 
Brahmins in Buddhism:
Brahmins feature extensively in Buddhist canonical texts i.e. the Tripitaka, and are found among the chief disciples of the Buddha. The Brahmana Varga (section on Brahmins) contained in the Dharmapada lists down the Buddha's views on Brahmins
Brahmin bhikshus
  • Abhaya Raja (built Mahabouddha temple with his descendants in Patan, Nepal in year 1604)
  • Asvaghosa (wrote the 'Buddhacharita' and is considered along with Nagarjuna to have founded the Mahayana in 1st AD). His philosophy was favoured in the court of King Kanishka, of Kushan Empire,  an empire in South Asia, originally formed in the early 1st century CE under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of the former Greco-Bactrian Kingdom around the Oxus River (Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan.
  • Atapa
  • Bakula
  • Bhitka (Buddha's fifth successor)
  • Cuda Panthaka
  • Dignaga
  • Gopaka
  • Guhyashila
  • Harita (wrote the "Harita Dharmasutra")
  • Humkara
  • Jnanadharma
  • Kacanna
  • Kamashila (Kashmiri Pandit)
  • Kalika
  • Kumarajiva (was imprisoned in China for spreading Buddhism)
  • Kanaka (Yamantaka Tantra)
  • Kukuraja
  • Manjushri (The mentor of Asoka)
  • Padma (woman)
  • Palden Dekyong
  • Pingala-Koccha (preached to the Buddha the Cūlasāropama Sutta, after which he became a    dedicated student of the Buddha)
  • Radhasvami (another mentor of Asoka)
  • Majnushrimitra
  • Nagasena
  • Narpola (student of Tipola)
  • Sahara (master of Tipola)
  • Sariputra
  • Shantideva
  • Shantarakshita (Kashmiri Pandit)
  • Subha
  • Subhadra
  • Subrahman (coming father of Bodhisattva Maitreya)
  • Tipola (Mahasiddha, from modern-day Bangladesh)
  • Vakkali
  • Vanavasi
Brahmin Bodhisattvas
Aryadeva (successor of Nagarjuna) Asangha (from Hinayana sect and Peshwar city founded the Yogacarya and established the Classical age of Buddhism)
  • Nagasena (the famous teacher of the milindapanha)
  • Bodhidharma (royalty of Pallava, from Kanchi) that went to China
  • Brahmadatta
  • Nagarjuna (founded the Shunyata concept and considered along with Asvaghosa to have founded the Mahayana in 1st AD)
  • Vasubandhu (Brother of Asanga and one of founders of the yogacara school - only historical Buddhist to be called the 'second Buddha')
  • Dignaga (5th century Buddhist logician from Kanchipuram)
  • Dharmakirti (7th century Buddhist logician from Andhra)
  • Buddhaghosa (5th century Pali scholar who led the revival of the Theravaada)
  • Kusanda Buddha
  • Konagamana Buddha
  • Kasyapsa Buddha
  • Kshitagarbha
  • Maitreya (Bodhisattva to come)
  • Padmasambhava (Founder of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism in 8th Century
Scriptures dedicated to Brahmin bhikkus
Because of the aim of the Brahmins, and the Buddha following on their path, several Buddhist texts have been dedicated to them.
  • Annatara Brahmana Sutta: To a Brahmin
  • Aññatra Sutta: To a certain Brahman (SN XII.46)
  • Brahmana Sutta 1: To Unnabha the Brahman
  • Cankii Sutta: To the Brahmin Cankii
  • Esukaari Sutta: To the Brahmin Esukari
  • Janussoni Brahmana Sutta: To the Brahmin Janussoni
  • Ganakamoggallaanasuttam B: To the Brahmin Ganakamoggallaana
  • Paccha-bhumika Sutta: To Brahmins of the Western Land (SN XLII.6)
  • Saleyyaka Sutta A: The Brahmins of Sela
  • Saleyyaka Sutta B: The Brahmans of Salahar"
In kingdoms
There have been Brahmin Buddhists too in Buddhist kingdoms.
  • In Cambodia (Sanskrit Kambhoja) there is an edict saying that King Jayavarman and his son Rudravarman build a monument in dedication of Lord Buddha and appointed a Brahmin to protect it.
  • In Sri Lanka, Maha Adigar was the first Buddhist emperor of Sri Lanka, converting many to Buddhism.
  • In 120 BC, the Indo-Greek King Milinda converted to Buddhism under sage Nagasena.
  • The Shunga Dynasty is thought by neo-Buddhists as an anti-Buddhist dynasty but the Shungas themselves built a stupa dedicated to the Buddha at Baharut.
(Posted on facebook in 14 December 2014)

Friday, 17 June 2016

धार्मिक घरपरिवारमा हुर्के बढे पढेका बालबालिकाहरु तुलनात्मक रुपमा लोभ बढी र दान कम गर्ने हुन्छ

विभिन्न देशको अध्धयन अनुसन्धानबाट अब चाही पुष्टि हुदैछ है संस्थागत धार्मिक परम्परामा हुर्काएका बढाएका बालबच्चाहरु दयामाया कम हुने, लोभी र निष्ठुरी हुने र कम उदारवादी/दानी हुने र दण्ड सजाय दिनु पर्छ भन्ने भावना र दृष्टि बढी मात्र भएको पाईन्छ | त्यस्तै गरी उनीहरुमा कम मात्रामा समानुभूति र न्याय गर्न संवेदनशीलता हुन्छ भन्ने पुष्टि भई सकेको छ |
हालको अध्धयन अमेरिकाको छिगागो भन्ने विश्वविधालयले विश्वका ६ राष्ट्रहरु: क्यानडा, चीन, जोर्डन, टर्की, अमेरिका र दक्षिण अफ्रीकामा गरेका हुन् जसमा ५ देखि १२ वर्षका ११७० जना बालबालिका सहभागी गराएका थिए |
यस अध्धयनको साथै अन्य अध्धयनहरुको निष्कर्षबाट बुझ्न सकिन्छ कि "हामी बाहुनहरु लोभी हुन्छौ" भनेर किन भन्ने गर्छन कतिपय हाम्रा बाहुन समुदायमा हुर्केबढे पढेका साथी भाईहरु जसले कागको नाम आफै काट्छ भने झैँ उनीहरु स्वयं हामी बाहुन लोभी छौ भन्ने गर्छन कसैले भनोस नभनोस आफ्नैले आत्मसात गर्ने गर्छन | उनीहरुले भने झैँ अन्य समुदायका मानिसहरुले पनि अनुभव गरेका छन् उनीहरुसंग संगत गरेर, देखेर, हेरेर तुलनात्मक रुपमा अन्य समुदायको भन्दा बाहुन समुदाय व्यक्तिहरु लोभी हुन्छन भन्ने गर्छन साधारणतय | हुन् त लोभलालच भन्ने गुण प्राणी जगतमा हुन्छ | तर मात्रा कम र बढी कति छ/हुन्छ भन्ने मुख्य महत्वको विषय हो |
जे होस् सबैलाई राम्रो थाहा छ हिन्दुस्तान र नेपालमा अन्य समुदाय भन्दा बाहुन समुदाय अतिनै लिप्त हुन्छन संस्थागत धर्ममा किन कि हिन्दु भन्ने समाजमा अन्य समुदायका व्यक्तिहरु जतिसुकै वेद, पुराण, स्मृति, श्रुति, उपनिषेद, गीता आदि धार्मिक ग्रन्थ शास्त्रहरु अध्धयन गरेता पनि कुनै पनि हालतमामा उनीहरुले कर्मकाण्ड गर्न पाउदैन, बन्देज लगाईएको छ किन कि आफुले मात्र कर्मकाण्ड गर्ने नियम राख्नु भनेको आफ्नो समुदायको लागि मात्र आयआर्जन गर्ने क्षेत्र सुरक्षित राख्नु हो | त्यसै बाठोटाठो हुन्छ युगौ युगौ देखि अध्धयन अध्यापन गर्दै आएका व्यक्तिहरु आफ्नो भावी सन्ततिको कमाई खाने क्षेत्र कस्तो मज्जाले सुरक्षित राखी दिएका छन् आफ्नो पुर्खाको दुरगामी दृष्टिकोणले गर्दा |
हिन्दु धर्म बाहेक अन्य धार्मिक समुदायमा जो कोहि पण्डित पुरोहित धार्मिक गुरु बन्न पाउने र कर्मकाण्ड गर्ने प्रावधान छ जस्तै बौद्ध, ईसाई र ईस्लाम धर्ममा लागेका जुनसुकै समुदायकाहरु लामा, पास्टर, ईमाम बन्न पाउँछ | तर हिन्दु धार्मिक संसारमा बाहुन बाहेक कोहि पनि बन्न पाउंदैन पण्डित र पुरोहित कर्मकाण्डी धार्मिक पुजारी | मात्र बन्न पाउँछ त केहि सिमित मठमन्दिरका पुजारी जस्तै मनकामना, बुढा सुब्बा आदि मन्दिरमा मगर, लिम्बु जातिका पुजारी छन् |
बल्ल सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ उजागड हुदैछ हामी मानवको आनीबानी, आचरण र व्यवहार किन फरक फरक कसैमा कमि कुनै गुण र कसैमा बढी कुनै गुण सबै मानव जाति एक्कै भएता पनि प्राकृतिक रुपमा | मलाई मनोविज्ञान अतिनै मन पर्ने रोचक विषय हो किन कि मनोविज्ञानले मात्र प्रमाणित हुन्छ हामी प्राणीहरुको आनीबानी, आचरण र व्यवहार जुन नितान्त रुपमा महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ मानव वा दानव कसरी बनिन्छ एक निर्दोष बालबालिका आफ्नो जीवन र जगतमा भन्ने पुष्टि गर्छ |

श्रोत सामाग्री

१. Dan Arel, 2015. Study finds that children raised without religion show more empathy and kindness - See more at:

Wednesday, 15 June 2016

तामाङ समाज जहाँ छैन लैङ्गिक विभेद

नेपाली समाजमा नारीको अवस्थाबारे बुझ्न अलिक गहन रुपमा सोच, खोज, विचार विमर्श, अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गरी विश्लेषण गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । किनकि नेपाली समाज दुई पृथक संस्कार, संस्कृति, परम्परा तथा धार्मिक आस्था र विश्वास बोकेका भारोपेली र भोट–बर्मेली भाषाभाषीहरुको मिश्रित समाज हो । मानव उत्पत्तिदेखि जन्म–मरणसम्म दैनिक सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, आर्थिक तथा धार्मिक क्रियाकलाप, रहनसहन, जीवनलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोण एवं दर्शन, मूल्य–मान्यता र मानसिकता नै भिन्न छन् । यी दुई समुदायमा हुर्के बढेका मानिसले नारी र पुरुषलाई गर्ने व्यवहार, हेर्ने दृष्टिकोण र व्यक्तिगत मानसिकता बाल्यकालदेखि नै पृथक रुपमा निर्माण भएको पाइन्छ । यसैअनुसार हाम्रा सामाजिक मूल्यमान्यता र मानसिकता अनि नारी र पुरुषलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोण पनि निर्माण भएको पाउँदछौँ । त्यसैले नेपाली समाजमा ‘छोरा जन्मे खसी, छोरी जन्मे फर्सी’ भन्ने जस्ता छोरा र छोरी जन्मे कसलाई बढी प्राथमिकता दिनुपर्दछ भन्ने अति नै लैङ्गिक विभेदपूर्ण विश्वास र मान्यताबारेको उक्तिको समेत निर्माण भएको पाउँछौँ ।
हुन त नेपाली समाज भन्ने बित्तिकै विशेषतः हिन्दुवादी आस्था र विश्वास, संस्कार, संस्कृतिअनुसार सञ्चालित र निर्देशित समाज भनेर बुझिन्छ र बुझ्नु पनि पर्दछ । मैले पनि यी कुरा आफ्नो विद्यावारिधी गर्ने क्रममा बुझ्ने अवसर पाएँ । यस अध्ययनको क्रममा महिला र पुरुषबीच किन विभेद छ, त्यसको मूल कारण के हो भनेर यथार्थ बुझ्ने प्रत्यन गरेँ । वास्तवमा महिला र पुरुषबीच जेजस्तो विभेद छ, विश्व मानव समाजमा त्यसको मूल कारकतत्व भनेको सङ्गठित धर्म रहेछ । परापूर्वकालदेखि नै मानव जातिका संस्कार, संस्कृति, परम्परा, सामाजिक मूल्यमान्यता र मानसिकता निर्देशित र सञ्चालित हुँदै आइरहेका छन् । मानव समाजमा छोरा र छोरीबीच किन भेदभाव गर्ने गरिन्छ ? जब यसबारे हामी गहन र गम्भीर रुपमा व्यक्तिगत र सम्प्रदायिक मनोभावनाभन्दा पनि प्रमाणमा आधारित तार्किक वैज्ञानिक ज्ञानलाई आधार मान्दै विश्लेषणात्मक ढङ्गले सोच, खोज गर्दै अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गरी बुझ्ने कोसिस गर्छौ, तब अन्य प्राणी जगतमा यस्तो विभेद बिल्कुलै पाउँदैनौँ । किनकि उनीहरु आदिमकालीन शोषकीय मानसिकता भएका मानवहरुद्वारा निर्मित सङ्गठित धर्म मान्ने गर्दैनन् । त्यसैले पनि उनीहरुको संसारमा कहिल्यै विभेद हुने गर्दैनन् ।
प्राकृतिक रुपमा लिएर आएका लिङ्ग (भाले र पोथी) छुट्टयाउने अङ्गको आधारमा जुन गर्ने गरिन्छ, हामी चेतनशील र विवेकशील भन्ने मानव जातिको संसारमा कस्तो आश्चर्यलाग्दो अवस्था छ । सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ बुझ्दा यस विश्व ब्रह्माण्डबारे प्रकृतिको सिद्धान्त र मानव समाजद्वारा कृत्रिम रुपमा निर्मित वस्तुबारे बुझ्ने प्रयासरत रहँदा विकसित राष्ट्रहरुद्वारा गरिएको नारी मुक्ति, नारी स्वतन्त्रता र नारी अधिकार अभियान र नारीवादीहरुद्वारा लिखित विश्लेषणात्मक लेखहरुको साथै उनीहरुको अभिव्यक्तिबाट पनि प्रस्ट रुपमा बुझिन्छ ।  
यदि जोकोहीले नारी मुक्ति र सुनियोजित रुपमा स्थापित सामाजिक पुरुषवादको दासत्वपनबाट आफू र आफ्ना भावी सन्ततिलाई मुक्ति दिलाउने हो भने आफूलाई सङ्गठित धर्मको अन्धभक्तिपनाबाट छुटकारा दिलाउन सक्नुपर्दछ । सामाजिक न्याय, आर्थिक समृद्धि र आम वर्गको मुक्तिका लागि लड्ने १९ औं शताब्दीका समाजवाद र साम्यवादको पिता तथा अभियन्ता यहुदीपुत्र कार्ल माक्र्सले समेत भनेका थिए– “धर्म भनेको अफिम हो, जुन हतियारको रुपमा प्रयोग गर्ने गर्छन् शोषक वर्गले आम नागरिकको मनमस्तिष्क नियन्त्रण गर्न । त्यसैले सामाजिक न्याय र व्यक्तिगत स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त गर्न धर्मबाट आफूलाई अलग राख्नुपर्छ ।”
हाम्रोजस्ता अल्पविकसित राष्ट्रहरुमा अशिक्षा र अज्ञानताको कारणले ठूलो सङ्ख्यामा आम नागरिक अचेत छन् र उनीहरुलाई यसबारे जानकारी छैन । साथै जानकारी लिन पढेलेखेका शिक्षित वर्गहरु समेत मनमस्तिष्कमा उत्सुक र जिज्ञासु देखिँदैन सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ के हो भन्ने बुझ्नमा । त्यसैले आम मानिसहरु एकोहोरो परापूर्वकालदेखि परम्परागत रुपमा आफ्ना पुर्खा– हजुरआमा, आमाहरुले जे गर्दै आइरहेका छन्, सोही सिक्दै सिकाउँदै आइरहेको हामी देख्न र हेर्न पाउँदछौँ । पश्चिमेली मुलुकमा नारीलाई गरिने विभेदबाट मुक्ति दिलाउन ५औं शताब्दीदेखि नै सचेत शिक्षित महिलाहरुले सङ्गठित धर्मको विरुद्धमा आवाज उठाउँदै आएको पाउँदछौँ । जस्तै ग्रिकका गणितविज्ञ तथा दार्शनिक हाइपटियालाई सङ्गठित धर्मको विरुद्धमा आवाज उठाएकै कारण मृत्युदण्ड दिए तत्कालीन इसाइवादीहरुले ।
भाषाविद अमृत योन्जन–तामाङज्यूको यो “उज्यालो यात्रामा तामाङ महिला” भन्ने पुस्तकबाट प्रस्ट हुन्छ, बुद्धवादी जीवनदर्शन र धर्म परम्परा मान्दै आएको तामाङ समुदाय कतिको उदारवादी समाज छ, जहाँ नारीलाई एक मानवको रुपमा हेरिन्छ र जन्मदेखि मरणसम्म उनीहरुलाई एक मानवले अर्को मानवलाई गरिने व्यवहार गरिन्छ, जुन अन्य सङ्गठित धर्म दर्शन मान्ने समुदायमा पाउँदैनौँ । अन्य सङ्गठित धर्ममा नारी पुरुषबीच भेदभाव रहेको र नारीलाई दोश्रो दर्जाको रुपमा लिने गरेको तथ्यलाई बुझ्न सम्बन्धित धार्मिक समुदायमा नारीहरुको विगत र वर्तमानको अवस्था र उनीहरुको भूमिका सो धर्मग्रन्थ र शास्त्र ध्यानपूर्वक अध्ययन गरी नारी र पुरुषले गर्न हुने, नहुने आचरण, क्रियाकलाप र व्यवहारबाट प्रस्ट रुपमा बुझ्न सकिन्छ ।
तामाङ समुदायमा स्त्रीलिङ्ग झल्किने कुनै पनि शब्दको प्रयोग र उत्पत्ति नहुनुबाटै छर्लङ्ग हुन्छ कि तामाङ समाज लैङ्गिक विभेदरहित समाज हो । यही समाजमा पनि कालान्तरमा गएर लैङ्गिक विभेदपूर्ण व्यवहार र परम्पराको स्थापना हुन गयो । सामन्ती शासक शोषक वर्ग, विशेषतः जङ्गबहादुर राणाको पालामा १९औं शताब्दीमा लिखित “मुलुकी ऐन” लादिएकाले यस्तो भएको हो । “मुलुकी ऐन”को नाममा “मनुवाद दर्शन” अनुसार सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, राजनितिक र धार्मिक हिन्दुवाद जीवन दर्शन र दृष्टिकोण जबर्जस्ती लादिएकाले नै तामाङ समाजमा प्रभावमा परेको हो ।
हिन्दु समाजमा महिला रजस्वला भएको बखत अलग रहनु पर्ने, पूजापाठ गर्न नहुने, आफूभन्दा ठूलाबडा पुरुष र धार्मिक गुरुहरुलाई छुन नहुने जुन मान्यता छ, त्यो तामाङ समाजमा छैन । तर कतिपय तामाङ दिदीबहिनीहरुले अझै पनि त्यस्तो अभ्यास गर्ने गर्छन् अज्ञानताले गर्दा । हामै्र घरपरिवारमा पनि म र मेरो दिदीले पनि गर्ने गथ्र्यौ आजभन्दा २५–३० वर्ष अघिसम्म हिन्दुवादको प्रभावले गर्दा । मेरी आमाले प्रस्ट रुपमा बौद्धधर्म गुरु लामाबाट बुद्धदर्शनमा छोरीचेलीहरु रजस्वला हुँदा हिन्दुधर्म समाजमा झैँ बार्नु पर्दैन भनेर भनेपछि कुरा बुझेँ । हाम्रो आमाले त्यस्तो अभ्यासलाई आजबाटै रोक्ने र निरन्तरता नदिने भन्दै सोही अनुसार गराउन पहल गर्नुभयो ।
त्यसैले कुनै पनि घरपरिवार वा समाज परिवर्तनको संवाहक र संस्कार संस्कृतिको जगेर्ना गर्ने भनेको नारीले नै हुन् । त्यसमा पनि विशेषतः आमा हुन्, जो यस धर्तीका नवआगन्तुक मानव “नवशिशु”को पहिलो गुरु हुन् । अनौपचारिक रुपमा शिक्षादीक्षा दिने आमाहरुको हातमा एक मानव वा दानव, के निर्माण गर्ने भन्ने जिम्मेवारी हुने गर्दछ । त्यसैले पनि भन्ने गरिन्छ– “हरेक सफल पुरुषको पछाडि एक नारीको हात हुन्छ ।” यहीबाट पनि प्रस्ट हुन्छ नारी सशक्त, शिक्षित, सक्षम, स्वस्थ र सबल हुनुको कत्ति महत्व छ, जुन पाउने गर्छौँ तामाङ संस्कार, संस्कृति, परम्परा र उनीहरुले मान्दै आएको धर्म दर्शनमा । तर त्यसको भरपुर सदुपयोग र अभ्यास गर्नमा केवल ज्ञान, शिक्षा र चेतनाको कमी छ जुन केही हदसम्म भएता पनि पूर्ति गर्न सक्छ यस पुस्तकले भन्ने लागेको छ ।
स्रोत सामाग्री 
१. लक्ष्मी तामांगद्वारा लिखित भाषाविद एव‌ं अभियन्ता अमृत योन्जन–तामाङको नयाँ पुस्तक “उज्यालो यात्रामा तामाङ महिला” को भूमिकामा २०१६  ।

Monday, 13 June 2016

Tamang Genocide in Nepal

According to the United Nations Definition of Genocidal practice it proves that in Nepal besides other ethnic groups such as Tharu, Magar including others Tamang has been systematically GENOCIDE by the rulers of Nepal. As per the  UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 Article 2 that states Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such [1]:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Article 3:
The following acts shall be punishable:
(a) Genocide;
(b) Conspiracy to commit genocide;
(c) Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
(d) Attempt to commit genocide;
(e) Complicity in genocide.
Across the world whoever colonised indigenous lands they enslaved, abused, tortured, captured, controlled and treated in inhumane way in order to Genocide them that historical evidence proves.
In Nepal, historical background proves that those who came lately from India to save their lives from Muslim invaders to India they were the one who colonised and controlled Nepal and has been ruling since then and placing indigenous men inside the bar in the jail to nail them. 
Evidence suggests that only from 21 August 1932 AD Tamang ethnic member people have been permitted to write their surname "Tamang" by the rulers of Nepal. Till then they were called “Lama Bhotey”, "Murmi" or some other nomenclature in Nepal and prohibited from using the term
“Tamang”. The Nepal Government recognized the community as “Tamang” on the request of Sardar Bahadur, Jangba Bir Tamang, OBE, DMM, MC, [Officer of the British Empire, Distinguished Military Medal, Military Cross] who led a delegation to Shri 3 Sarkar, Bhim Shamsher Janga Bahadur Rana and Commander-in-Chief, Yuddha Samsher Janga Bahadur Rana. [Jhyojhyo, Edited by K M Tamang, Vol 2, No 2 2839 Ta lho (2003 AD) Page 17]
While I was studying in Australia I could not imagine that even in this 21st century any government officials can be that much ignorant racist fool to question civil service newly recruitment process candidates to ask racisal discriminatory question. I came across in the facebook regarding the question asked in 2014 civil service examination questionnaire about the largest population/ethnic group in the prison of Nepal stating, "Of those population who has been jailed in Nepal due to crime which ethnicity has 80% prisoners as per the government of Nepal record? and there were 4 options to the question as follow
a) Rai
b) Limbu
c) Magar
d) Tamang
and the correct answer was given to d) Tamang as published in National Newspaper, Gorkhapatra dated 3 September 2014.
This was NO Surprise to me since Tamang ethnic community is historically an inhabitant surrounding Kathmandu valley, a capital of Nepal so they were threat to rulers as they were against Shah Dynasty who fought in Nuwakot district with Gorkha King, Prithvi Narayan Shah and his troops who captured Kathmandu valley in 19th Century.
Tamang men had used as a porter (Pipa) and servants for different purpose in the royal palace by the feudal rulers. They were forbidden to join in military since they opposed rulers and fought against them. Their daughters, and sisters had used for sex trade in the royal palace to give sexual pleasure to the rulers. They even sold their daughters and sisters as a sex slave in India for British troops in 19th century from this practice Girls Trafficking practice and tradition started and established in Tamang ethnic group in which community even today still there is a high number of girls trafficking can be found despite international and national government efforts intensified in Nepal after democracy has been established in 1990.
Tamangs are inhabitants of the surrounding districts of Kathmandu valley thus predominately found in highly earthquake affected districts namely,Sindhupalchowk, Nuwakot, Dhadhing, Rasuwa,
Dolkha,Makwanpur, Kavreplanchowk, Ramechhap including Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kathmandu and   Chitwan. Their population constitutes 5.6% of Nepal's population as per the Census 2001, which places their population at 1,280,000, making them 5th largest population of Nepal and the most deprived community in terms of socio-economically. Besides, high girls trafficking in Tamang society, men working as porters in Kathmandu valley,  and involving in criminal activities such as robbery, thieving, stealing, etc committed by Tamang men are common compared to other community or ethnic groups that are all related to historical deprivation, discrimination and marginalised by the state classifying them as Bhote under the Enslavable Alcohol Drinker.
Same thing I suppose can be found in histories of Australia, USA, India and else wherever colonisation had taken place by invaders to indigenous lands they enslaved and put in poverty making them criminals.
Reading historical background of people, community and countries are essential to understand the present status why they are so much violent, backward, poor and involve in criminal activities. Otherwise we start to blame victims and appreciate perpetrators that common practices among those who have no idea about historical background from where fruits grown due to poor root.

1. The UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948  accessed from

Monday, 6 June 2016

तिक्षण बुद्धि के वंशानुगत हुन्छ ?

तिक्षण बुद्धि भएको नभएको वंशानुगत हुन्न भन्ने तथ्य त वैज्ञानिकहरुले पुष्टि गर्दै आई रहेका छन् [१] |
तिक्षण बुद्धि हुने नहुने भन्ने यथार्थ /वास्तविक तथ्य त सम्बन्धित व्यक्तिको आमाको गर्भमा रहदा बस्दा देखिनै उनको आमाले मलजल/ खानपिन कस्तो गरेको थियो साथै जन्मी सकेपछि पनि बालबालिकाको घरपरिवार र सामाजिक वातावरण के कस्तो थियो सो सम्पूर्ण कुराहरुले प्रभाव पार्ने हुन्छ |
तर अज्ञानताले गर्दा हामी प्राय जसोको बुझाई के छ भने कुनै एक निश्चित वर्ण (गोरो) जात/नश्ल (बाहुन/यहुदी) वा लिङ्ग (पुरुष) मा जन्मेका व्यक्तिहरु मात्र तिक्षण बुद्धि भएका हुन्छ भनेर | यस्ता बुझाई प्रायजसो मनोभ्रमले गर्दा हुने गर्छन एकहोरो झुठ, असत्य, तथ्यहिन मिथ्यालाई सत्य, तथ्य र यथार्थ हो भनेर मनको आँखा बन्द गरी विश्वास गर्ने र त्यस्ता ज्ञानको खेति गर्ने शोसकीय शासकीय मन, मनस्थिति र मानसिकता बोकेका व्यक्तिहरुमा उनीहरुको आफ्नै अज्ञानताले गर्दा |
वास्तवमा के चाही सत्य हो भने पढेलेखेका व्यक्तिहरु त्यसमा पनि जो अलिक मेहेनती र लगनशील छन् त्यस्ताहरु नै उच्च अंक ल्याउने वा सफल हुने गर्छन | तर उच्च अंक ल्यायो भन्दैमा उनीहरु तिक्षण बुद्धि भएको भन्ने चाही होइन् | पढेलेखेका शिक्षित र लगनशील र मेहेनती महिला पुरुषबाट जन्मेका बालबालिका अन्य नपढेका अशिक्षित, अल्छी र मेहेनत नगर्ने जाडरक्सि चुरोटविड़ी खाने महिला पुरुषबाट जन्मेका बालबालिका भन्दा पक्कै पनि तेजिलो हुन्छ बुद्धिमा पनि जुन वैज्ञानिक रुपमै पुष्टि भई सकेको तितो तथ्य हो |
खस-आर्य समुदायका बाहुन, सेता वर्ण का गोरा व्यक्तिहरु ले पण्डित पुरोहित पुजारी शिक्षक गुरु हुने भएकोले गर्दा उनीहरु विगत ३००० वर्षदेखि पढ्ने अवसर पाएका छन् | त्यसैले त्यो समाजमा तुलनात्मक रुपमा टाठाबाठा व्यक्तिहरु बदी देख्ने हुन्छ किन कि उनीहरु पदने र लेख्ने कार्यमा मेहेनती र लगनशील हुन्छ त्यसैले उनीहरु भन्ने गर्छन,
"हामी टुप्पी कसेर पदने गर्छौ सोहि कारणले गर्दा कर्मचारी तन्त्रमा हाम्रो उच्च तह देखि तल्लो तहसम्म उपस्थिति छ तिमीहरुले रिस, राग, डाहा गरेर हुन्छ पढ्ने बेलामा गुच्चा खेल्न र केटिसंग मस्त भएर !!!"
उनीहरुको उक्त भनाई पनि केहि हद्सम्म ठिकै हो तर त्यो मात्र तथ्य भने अवश्य होइन् भन्ने बुझी सकेका छौ मानवताको लागि |
स्रोत सामाग्री
१. "Is Intelligence Hereditary?" by Robert Plomin published on Scientific America Online 1 May 2016 access from

Wednesday, 1 June 2016

Midwifery Workforce Development in Nepal: Why there is too slow and sluggish?

Something fishy is going on as I realised regarding Professional Midwives Development in Nepal. I didn't expect situation has not that much progress and move forward as I expected after I left Nepal in 2011 to pursue my study. Reading status in the facebook and also talking with concerned professional in emails and else I thought Midwifery Education will start on 2014 before my arrival to Nepal after completion of my study. But my assumption was completely wrong and now I realised that something fishy going on in the process of producing midwifery workforce in attaining the Universal Health Coverage and Sustainable Development Goals including promoting Respectful Maternity Care in Nepal as Human Rights in Childbirth. 
I strongly realised something fishy going on especially while discussing with Nursing Chief Administrator, Ishwori Devi Shrestha​ who has core responsibility from the Ministry of Health (MoH) to executive policies, plans and strategies related to Midwifery Workforce Development in Nepal as per the National Policy on Skilled Birth Attendants 2006. To accelerate the activities systematically, effectively and efficiently I have been keep suggesting Nursing Chief Administrator, Ishwori Devi Shrestha regarding to develop the "Strategic Directions for Professional Midwives" that I also informed to MIDSON President, Kiran Bajracharya​ on 15 May 2016. Then Prof. Kiran told me that Ministry of Health has already developed "Strategic Directions for Professional Midwives" in 2012 with the technical and financial support of the UNFPA, ICM and MIDSON. 
I suggested her to share it which I got on 15 May. Yesterday when I met Ishwori madam I told her about the Strategic Directions for Professional Midwives that MoH has developed in 2012 then she told me that "it was not developed by MoH and has never ever owned it. Just the MoH name has written on the front page of the Strategic Directions for Professional Midwives". Now I realised it indeed because to develop this strategy there was the workshop organised on 14-18 May 2012 during this time I was not in Nepal but I have noticed that my name is also written as a participant.I was informed by Ishwori mam that even from Nepal Nursing Council by then President, Daya Laxmi Vaidya didn't join the event but her name is written on it. This doesn't seem professional and very much fishy. It is not appropriate to write anyone name in the official document without taking consent from the person who didn't take part and also from the authorised body if they don't take ownership of the produced document with great investment of mind, money, materials and muscle. 
I arrived in Nepal on 1 April 2015 after completion of my study then due to earthquake I involved actively in earthquake relief activities in my own initiatives whole last year. So, I didn't have much time to understand WHY midwifery workforce development process is very much slow and sluggish. But now I realised that there is still not favourable and healthy coordinative collaborative effort between/among responsible institutions, persons, people and professionals i.e. regulatory body, education, association and policy maker as well as executor and consumer (MoH). Still there is a huge BLAME GAME politics going on among/between us based on an individual interest rather than national interest as per the MoH policies, plans and strategies in improving sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health in achieving national and international goals as committed.