Monday, 26 January 2015

A Condom lady against Obstetric Violence in Nepal

Generally, people say an iron lady to bold and brave woman who voice and stand against any type of injustice or violence and exercise their full rights at its optimum level as best as I they can. However, I reject that title gifted by others and acknowledged with great realisation that I am a condom lady. 
I said that I am a condom lady because like condom fights against all kind of sexually transmitted infections including deadly virus, HIV and also prevents unwanted pregnancies and provide satisfaction to sexual partners I fight against social viruses such as violence, injustice, indoctrination, dogmatism, hatred, evil, devil, misogynist, sexism, genderism, manuism, corruption, feudalism, barbarism, inhumanity including all falsify, fantasy, funny, fable and fungi kinds of mindsets and thoughts that are making this world hell which I consider is heavenly place gifted by mother nature to live on for all human including plants, animals and else.
Being a health professional who had taken oath of the modern father of medicine, Hippocrates I follow his advice who said:
“Wherever the art of Medicine is loved, there is also a love of Humanity. The natural healing force within each of us is the greatest force in getting well. Make a habit of two things: to help; or at least to do no harm."
I am against obstetric violence because obstetric violence is done by health professionals for which women are helpless to protect self whereas in other kind of violence women can protect themselves if they are educated and empowered socio-economically whereas obstetric violence is bit challenging because it is committed by so-called expert in medical and nursing professionals due to Ignorance and thrust of POWER because of over capitalism mindset who runs after man-made MONEY rather than nature made, Humanity.
In Nepal, although we have low access of caesarean section service in general that's why we've low caesarean section rate of around 5% at the national level as per the recent Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011, however, we have very high caesarean section rate in urban areas ranging from 35 to 80% in semi-government hospitals like Patan Hospital, Teaching Hospital Maharajgung of around 35-45% whereas in private hospitals like B & B Hospital, Valley Maternity Hospital, OM Hospital, Norvic, and else caesarean section rate is as high as upto 70-80%. These rates are extremely hight then what the World Health Organization’s recommended 15 per cent. Risks of caesarean include increased need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care, hysterectomy, or in extreme cases – death.
Dr Hannah Dahlen, Associate Professor of Midwifery at the University of Western Sydney, says of safety in childbirth, “While the birth of a live baby is of course a priority, [the rate of] perinatal mortality [should not be ignored]. Cultural, emotional, social, psychological and spiritual safety rarely appear in the mainstream debates ... Not only [do these factors] dominate women’s thinking, research indicates ignoring its importance is potentially deadly.”
Similarly, in government hospitals birthing mothers are treated like an animals by nurses using verbal abusive words psychologically torturing them and also intervening routine cutting of women's perineum during childbirth. Such attitude and behaviour of medical and nursing professionals are unacceptable in a civilised world where women's body is use as an object instead of considering her as a human being having rights to access quality, cost effect, natural humanised care while giving a life to this world to sustain. That's the reason WHY I am against evil doing actions of educated so-called experts and intellectual.
In an editorial published online on October 6, 2010 in the International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dr. Rogelio Pérez D’Gregorio, President of the Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Venezuela described the specific mentions of the term “obstetric violence” as it appears in the Organic Law on the Right of Women to Be Free from Violence, enacted in Venezuela on March 16, 2007.
The law defines obstetric violence as “…the appropriation of the body and reproductive processes of women by health personnel, which is expressed as dehumanized treatment, an abuse of medication, and to convert the natural processes into pathological ones, bringing with it loss of autonomy and the ability to decide freely about their bodies and sexuality, negatively impacting the quality of life of women.”
Dr. Pérez D’Gregorio highlights two phrases for consideration, the first of which is “health personnel.” In Venezuela, this includes obstetricians, residents, medical students, nurses and technicians. Midwives are not included because, as Pérez D’Gregorio notes, “midwifery does not exist in obstetric practice in Venezuela, where all deliveries are attended by physicians in an institution.”
In addition, the phrase “the appropriation of the body and reproductive processes of women by health personnel” is, according to Pérez D’Gregorio, “contrary to good obstetric practice, whereby medication should only be used when it is indicated, the natural processes should be respected, and instrumental or surgical procedures should be performed only when the indication follows evidence-based medicine.”
The following acts executed by care providers are considered obstetric violence:
(1) Untimely and ineffective attention of obstetric emergencies;
(2) Forcing the woman to give birth in a supine position, with legs raised, when the necessary means to perform a vertical delivery are available;
(3) Impeding the early attachment of the child with his/her mother without a medical cause thus preventing the early attachment and blocking the possibility of holding, nursing or breast-feeding immediately after birth;
(4) Altering the natural process of low-risk delivery by using acceleration techniques, without obtaining voluntary, expressed and informed consent of the woman;
(5) Performing delivery via cesarean section, when natural childbirth is possible, without obtaining voluntary, expressed, and informed consent from the woman.

Demand of Dual Citizenship by Nepalese Diaspora

It was not my field of expertise however I have been requested to share my thoughts about dual citizenship on 25 January that Non Resident Nepali Association are dying for demanding for to have comparing with other developed nations without thinking that Nepal is incomparable to those developed world in terms of human development index as well other socio-economic, political, security, and many more issues. Besides in the world there are 3 kinds nations that fall under dual citizenship. Only around 38 nations allowed dual citizenship to their nations and some of those nations have restriction and conditions and even countries like USA, Australia, etc have condition for dual citizenship holders and nations like India, China, Japan, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, including around 46 or more nations of this world don't entertain their citizens holding dual citizenship.

However, some Nepalese elites who are after political power are strongly demanding for it without thinking for mother and motherland they are just thinking for self being so much selfish. In the country where mother are deny to have citizenship rights they are demanding for dual citizenship where almost every politician and government official are corrupt.

How pathetic they are and how dishonest they are to the nation from where they were granted their second citizenship.

चिचीको पनि लोभ पापाको पनि लोभ गरेर हुन्छ ?

मन नेपाली भए पछि किन चाहियो कागजी नागरिकताको अधिकार दुइ दुइ राष्ट्रहरुको ?

सबै भन्दा ठुलो मन हो मन | मन भए पछि सबै मेरो हुन्छ | तर देख्छ टेडो आफ्नै अज्ञानताले गर्दा |

Anyway, I have just presented facts and figures about dual citizenship and had masculinity kind of sharing.

Theological and realism perspective about Hell and Heaven

Whatever an Aryan Prince Siddhartha Gautam who became Buddha had taught 2500 years in ancient Nepal and India no one can deny because scientifically it has proven as well spiritually anyone can experimented.

Also even by theologically Christians, Muslim and Hindus have borrowed and asserted that whatever Buddha said was right since their own masters have been asserting that Buddha prophesied about Maitreya Buddha was Mohammed as per Dr Zakir Naik from India a great Islamic world scholar, Christians have been asserting the same claiming about forthcoming Jesus and also proved by British scholars that Jesus was a Buddhist Monk and in Hinduism Buddha has been considered 9th incarnation of Lord Vishnu. These all prove that we should admire and follow Buddha teachings because he was a original real teacher and Gods of God, Prophets of Prophets who said there is NO God, No Heaven and Hell except in our mind.

Even from Hindu perspective I realise that there is NO Hell and Heaven as we think =D it is because in Hinduism there is a strong believe "जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी" this Sanskrit verse can be translated as "Mother and motherland are superior to Heaven." and this Sanskrit verse uttered by Lord Rama in the Hindu epic Ramayana. It is also the national motto of Nepal.

If mother and motherland are superior to Heaven that means there is NO heaven and hell since it cannot be superior of God land than human land which is earth and human being a Mother. Common sense can make this very clear if we have Brain to think in our head, heart to feel and hands to act or take action.

Sunday, 18 January 2015

Sexist Nepali culture and custom

If we learn to understand Nepali culture no one can say that Nepali culture has been ruined by western culture because in our Nepalese culture 125 different caste/ethnic communities have their different traditional costumes that women wear.

We have sexist culture I would say because some communities in Tarai (low land of Nepal) wear this type of half naked upward and even while we women and girls take bath in public tap we wear in the same way, half naked. Similarly, we don't feel shame to feed our breast in a public openly without covering breast that we can see in most of the places in Nepal especially in rural settings =D but in modern urban places educated females feel shame thus they cover their breast while feeding or even don't prefer to feed. Likewise, we've sexist culture of "Kamasutra" that read by married men especially which is like a porn in the western world. BUT we blame to the western world for ruining our culture. What an ill mindset we have who always LOVE to play BLAME GAME. We love doing sex that is why prostitution business is considered one of the appealing oldest profession /business both India and Nepal promoted by rulers and elites since ancient time but consider taboo while talking about sex decently in a public places or even in a family. Similarly, we have nude, sexist and porn pictures and statues in temples and also worship Penis in vagina which is called "Shiva Linga" that means Lord Shiva's Penis. These all sounds hypocrites and double standard to me. BUT I love Nepalese indigenous diversified culture because it is naturally driven with spiritualism but ruined by organised superstitious religious rituals imposed by rulers.

In the mid and far western regions of Nepal we have sexist custom called "Chaupadi" a shelter in which girls and women are confined during menstrual period because they are forbidden to stay at home. This tradition is guided with the concept that is documented in the "law of manu" known as "Manusmriti" in which it says that women's should remain separate during menstrual period because it is considered impure and god will be angry with them if they touch men, kitchen and plants.

In one of the verses of Manusmriti it has written,
 "A woman is purified on a miscarriage in as many days and nights as months elapsed after conception, and a menstruating female becomes pure by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased to flow."- Manusmriti V

Women's natural physiological cycle process  related myths due to under developed mindsets of some ancient men.

Even female natural  menstrual cycle has been politicised corrupt scripture minded. This really annoys me how much control they exert in female's  body, mind and spirit due to their barbaric mindsets. 

On 2014, October 30, Pushpa Palanchoke, a student of ethnomusicology at Kathmandu University wrote an article titled "Menstruation myths" sharing her experience relating to the mythological beliefs and practices of this world. She writes 
I was 15 when I had my first menstruation. Since then, depression around religious occasions due to menstruation observation has haunted me. Even in the recent celebratory season, a large number of females like me were worried about their festival getting ruined because of their bleeding. Menstruation is just a natural process but it acts as a factor of exclusion for females.

Hindu mythology gives rationality behind the barriers set against women during their menstrual cycle. Srimad Bhagavatam has a story that women had to share the sin of a Brahmin’s murder at the hands of Indra in the form of menstruation every month. This makes women’s menstrual bleeding a sinful act. 

For years the Hindu community has believed that a woman becomes impure during menstruation and she should be kept away from offering anything to gods and should not touch anything to be offered to gods. This is not where the line of control ends—it extends to the kitchen. Women are compelled to eat separately. In some cases, they are given separate utensils to be used during the period. 

We even have a cruel custom of Chaupadi in Nepal in which women during their menstruation period need to stay in animal sheds. Even if it has been outlawed, Chaupadi continues. In many Indian societies, female artists do not practice art during their period for they deem art sacred and their menstruation a sin. Practices such as bali and sumba are few examples of indifferences towards women for their monthly menstruation. In bali women are supposed to not enter the kitchen, not sleep with husband or have sex, keep their clothes away from other members of the family and not enter the temple. Sumba is about keeping this period of month secret to everyone, making men see them as deceitful.

This is observed in Indonesian culture. There’s a similar practice in Japan.

Manusmriti, the oldest Hindu law, regards menstruating women as polluted. Even one ayat of the Koran mentions that menstruating women are polluted. Tantrism takes a less aggressive approach to menstruation by saying that all women during their menstrual period embody a functional vestige of Goddess Kali’s pre-cosmic creative cycles. Because of this, menstruating women are vessels of abundant prana. Their chakras are loose and they become spiritually more receptive, hence, are in vulnerable state. Purposefully, a woman is to be protected from gross masculine energy through amulets, rituals and isolation is a must. 

Sikhism does not condemn menstrual cycle. The Native American tribe, Cherokee, regards menstrual blood a source of feminine strength having the power to destroy enemies. 

Ancient Rome too held similar belief that during this period of month women are really powerful and have psychic abilities—if she is to walk around the field all the beetles would fall off the vegetation. Similarly in Africa menstrual blood is used in magical charm both for purifying and destroying things. 

Thousands of such menstrual myths are found around the world. In fact, menstruation and conception are exclusively female phenomena and men have ever been fascinated with them. The exotic bodily processes in women have inspired men to create myths. 

On first Saturday of the month of Kartik there was a satsang puja at my home. I was having my menstruation at that time. I felt no hesitation in entering the worship chamber and sing hymns along with other participants. Not only this, I also put tika and took prasad. I was glad to hear welcoming words from my own uncle and father. My mother was hesitant but she ultimately gave in. 

1. Mensutural myths by Pushpa Palanchoke"  

Monday, 12 January 2015

स्वस्थानी व्रत कथाको लेखेक बारे भ्रम र अन्योलता पण्डित ज्युहरु स्वयं

कुरा बुझ्दा हाँस मात्र उठ्छ अनि नबुझ्दा रिस | त्यसैले रिस खा आफु बुद्धि खा अर्का भन्ने गर्छन हाम्रो गाउँ समाजमा | 

खोई के खोई के पण्डित ज्युहरु आफै भ्रमित र अनविज्ञ हुनु हुँदा रहेछन कसले लेखेका हुन् स्वस्थानी ब्रत कथा भनेर अनि मेडमले पनि नेवारले लेखेका हुन् भन्नु भएको रहेछन | हामीले बुझ्नु पर्छ नेवार भनेको समाज बनाएको मात्र १४ औ शताब्दीमा हो हिन्दुस्तानको ५ जना ब्राह्मणहरुको सहयोगमा राजा जयस्थिति मल्लले मनुस्मृति र नारायण स्मृति अनुसार जुन प्रष्ट छ "मानव न्याय शास्त्र" मा जुन नेपालको पहिले कानून हो | त्यस्तैले नेवार भनेको मोगोलियन तथा आर्यन मुलका मानिसहरुको मिश्रीत समुदाय हो जहाँ ब्राह्मण, क्षेत्री, तामाङ्ग/किरात, आदि जातिहरु छन् | जे होस् सुनिल श्रेष्ठ प्रष्ट हुनु हुन्छ स्वस्थानी ब्रत कथाको लेखकको बारेमा र उहाँले लेख्नु हुन्छ कमेन्टमा यस्तो,

"स्वस्थानीकथाको प्राचिन लेखक महर्षि वेदव्यास हुन् |
धार्मिक ग्रन्थ स्वस्थानीकथाको प्राचिन लेखक को हुन् भनेर हामीले पढ्ने पुस्तकमा लेखेको छैन तर त्यो ग्रन्थको लेखिएको नाम जसले संकलन गरेर प्रकाशित गरे उनीहरुको हो| तर स्वस्थानीकथाको केहि हरफहरुलाई ध्यान दिएर अध्यन गर्ने हो भन्ने सो पुस्तक कहाँबाट साभार भएको हो भन्ने चै सजिलै थाहा पाउछौ ,सोहि आधार स्वस्थानीको लेखक सजिलै पतालाग्छ | जसरी 'गीताको' मूलश्रोत 'महाभारत' हो |.
स्वस्थानी कथाको हरेक अध्याय पछि हामीले उचारण गर्ने मन्त्र ""इति श्री स्कन्द पुराणे केदारखण्डे माघमहात्मे कुमार अगस्य संबादे""लाइ ध्यानपुर्बक विश्लेषण गर्ने हो ""स्वस्थानीकथा"" ""स्कन्दपुराण""को 'केदारखण्ड' भन्ने उपशिर्षकबाट लिएको देखिन्छ | सनातन साहित्यको १८ पुराणहरु मध्य सबै भन्दा ठुलो पुराणको नाम हो "स्कन्दपुराण" जसमा ८१००० श्लोकहरु छन् ,जसलाई ७ खण्डमा बिभाजन गरिएको छ| ७ खण्ड मध्य पहिलो खण्डको नाम हो ""महेश्वर"" खण्ड ,सोहि ""महेश्वरखण्ड""को पहिलो उपखण्डको नाम हो "केदारखण्ड" नै ""स्वस्थानी कथा"" हो | स्कन्द भनेको भगवान कुमारको अर्को नाम पनि हो | १८ पुराणका लेखक महर्षि वेदव्यास हुन् | स्वस्थानी ब्रतकथाको प्राचिन लेखक पनि महर्षि वेदव्यास हुन्|"

रामेश्वरी पन्त ज्युको कान्तिपुर अनलाई जनवरी १०, २०१५ शिर्षक "स्वस्थानीका शिवजी" मा उल्लेख गर्नु भएको थियो:
"महादेव र पार्वती श्लेषमान्तक वनमा घुम्न जाँदा त्यहाँका किरातहरू सारै फोहोरी देखेर उनीहरूलाई सरसफाइ सम्बन्धी ज्ञान दिए । 'फोहोर तिमीहरूको जन्मजात गुण होइन, तिमीहरू पनि सफा बन्न सक्छौ' भन्दै उनीहरूलाई नुहाउन सिकाए, घुमन्ते किरातहरूका अशक्त, वृद्ध र बालबालिकाको सुरक्षाका लागि झुपडी बनाएर बस्न
सिकाए, खेतीपाती गर्न र जडिबुटीबाट औषधोपचार गर्न सिकाए । यसरी महादेव र पार्वतीले किरातहरूलाई सभ्य बन्न दिएको शिक्षा नै मानवशास्त्रमा मानिसले पाएको पहिलो शिक्षा थियो ।'"

मेडमले लेख्नु भएको यी हरफहरु पद्दा चाही मलाई हाँस उठ्यो किन कि महादेव स्वयं एक भोटे किरात हुन् भन्ने प्रमाण छ | तर यो चाही हिन्दुस्तानी पण्डितहरुले जुन मोङ्गोलियन मुलका भोट बर्मेली भाषीहरुलाई खिसी पुर्वक "किरात" भने जसको अर्थ हिन्दुस्तानबाट दक्षिण पूर्वी हिमालमा बस्ने जंगली सिंह प्रवृतिको मानिसहरु भन्ने हुँदा रहेछन उनीहरुलाई महादेवले नुहाउनु सिकाउनु भनेको चाही स्व-घोषित शुद्ध सफा स्वच्छ आफू जो एक लोटा पानीले स्नान गर्छन बाहिरी शरीर मात्र तर भित्र मन चाही फोहरी हुन्छ अनि भोटेहरु फोहोरी हुन्छ भन्न खोजेको बुझिन्छ |

मेरो यी माथिको प्रतिकृया फेसबुक स्टाटसमा पढे पछि तेन्जिंग लिम्बुलेख्नु हुन्छ,
हिन्दु बेद को मुख्य ज्ञान प्राचिन दक्षिण पुर्ब एसिया को स्थानीय बसी जसलाई बैदिक काल पछि किराँत भनेर चिनिने जाति को दर्शान लाई आर्य हरु ले आफ्नो स्वार्थ शिद्ध हुने संहिता को आवरण हालेर हिन्दु धर्म बनाएको हो l जुन तथ्य कुरा लाई आजसम्म को कुनै खोज कर्ता हरु ले उजागर गरेको छैनन l तथ्य लाई सहि खोज को विवरण ओझेल मा राखिएको प्रस्ट हुन्छ l जुन बेद पुराण र उपनिषद् र अन्य हिन्दु ग्रन्थ हरु मा लेखिएका धेरै तथ्य हरु बैदिक काल अघि देखि मानि आएका किराँत हरु को मुन्धुम र अन्य दर्शन ज्ञान हरुमा पाईन्छन l.
अर्को कुरा जहाँ बाट आर्य हरु आए त्यहाँ पुर्ब काल देखि आज सम्म को ईतिहास खोज्ने हो भने बैदिक काल देखि आज सम्म को ईतिहास लाई तुलना गरेर हेर्ने हो भने आर्या हरु आएको थात थलो मा हिन्दु दर्शन र आध्यात्मिक दर्शन र भौतिक आधारको कुनै अस्तित्व थिएन र छैन तेसैले पुष्टि गर्छ हिन्दु आर्य हरुले स्थानीय आध्यात्मिक दर्शन र भौतिक ज्ञान लाई आफ्नो ईच्छा पूर्ति हुने संहिता को आवरण राखेर आफ्नो बनाएका हुन् तेस्मा मुख्य आवरण मनुस्मृति हो भन्दा फरक नपर्ला l.

ज्वाजलाप्पा सकासिता ज्यु को प्रतिकृया यस्तो छ:  

हा हा हा हा, जति बुझ्न भ्याए, त्यति लेखे जस्तो लाग्यो । स्वस्थानीको कुरा र देविपुराणको कुरा कहाँ मेल खाएको छ, अत्तोपत्तो देखिन्न । यो लेख अपुरो अध्ययनको नतीजा हो, अध्ययन पुरा गर्न सामाग्री जुटाउने उद्देश्य लुकेको छ । स्वस्थानीमा नेवारले किन बाहुनको मात्र कथा लेख्यो ? किन कतै नेवार समाजको कथा लेखिएन, स्वस्थानीमा ? यो प्रश्न साँच्चै सोचनीय छ । नेवार समाजका स्यस्य: (श्रेष्ठ) हरुमा स्वस्थानी प्रचलित छ, यिनै श्रेष्ठहरु हिन्दुकरणमा चुर्लुम्म डुबेका समुह हुन र बर्मू च्य: बन्दै बाहुनबादको रक्षा गर्न मरिहत्ते गर्ने काममा पनि श्रेष्ठहरु नै अग्र पंक्तिमा छन । नेपालभाषा छोडेर आफ्ना सन्तानलाइ खसभाषा सिकाउनेहरु पनि श्रेष्ठ नै अग्रपंक्तिमा छन । यो सवै हेर्दा स्वस्थानी शायद नेवार समाजलाइ बाहुनबादको चंगुलमा लैजाने अस्त्र थियो कि जस्तो लागेको छ ।

निरोज गुरुङ ज्युको प्रतिकृया भने यस्तो थियो,  

लौन क्यारनी अब ! नगर र समाज बिकासका देउता दक्षप्रजापति हुन् (नामै हेर) जस्को शिर काटेर बाख्राको टाउको जोड्ने शिब जी जो स्वयम् समाजिक ब्यक्ति थिएन्न् लुगा नलगाउने असभ्य, खरानी धस्ने- भाङ धतुरो खाने, भुत-पिचाससँग बस्ने, साप-हड्डीको माला लगाउने, फोहोरी र लट्टा परेको कपाल भएको जोगीले कसैलाई नुहाउन, सफा हुन, झुपडी बनाउन, खेतीपाती गर्न कसरी सिकाए होलान् ! शिब शिब..हरि हरि !!

रामेश्वरी पन्त ज्युको पुरा लेख:

नेपाली समाजमा शताब्दियौंदेखि अत्यधिक श्रद्धापूर्वक व्रत, पूजा र पाठ गर्दै आएको स्वस्थानी व्रतकथाको पुस्तक सर्वप्रथम कहिले र कसले लेख्यो भन्ने कुरा अहिलेसम्म पनि कसैले ठोकुवा गरेर भन्नसकेको पाइएको छैन । नेवारी भाषामा लेखिएको भनिएको स्वस्थानी कथा पक्कै पनि कुनै नेवारले नै लेखेको हुनुपर्छ । त्यसो हो भने नेवारले किन बाहुनको मात्र कथा लेख्यो ? किन कतै नेवार समाजको
कथा लेखिएन, स्वस्थानीमा ? यो प्रश्न पनि सोचनीय देखिन्छ । जे होस्, नेवारले जे देख्यो, त्यही लेख्यो । तत्कालीन समयमा बाहुन समाजमा हिन्दु धर्म र परम्पराको नाममा महिलामाथि हुने ज्यादती, पतिव्रताका नाममा बाहुन महिलाले सहनुपरेका दुःख, बालविवाह, एकल महिलाले खेप्नुपरेका समस्या, धर्मको नाममा महिलालाई दिइने प्रताडनालाई स्वस्थानी कथासँग जोडिदिएको हुनसक्छ । जे होस्, यी प्रसंगलाई छोडेर स्वस्थानीकै ऐतिहासिक प्रसंगतिर
जानु सान्दर्भिक छ ।
आफ्नी प्राणप्यारी पत्नी सतीदेवीको मृत्युपछि शिव यति धेरै शोकाकुल बन्छन् कि उनलेे सतीदेवीको मृत शरीर बोकेर संसार भ्रमण गर्दै हिँंड्दा सतीको देह सडेर अङ्ग-अङ्गहरू विभिन्न ठाउँमा झर्दै जान्छन् र ती ठाउँहरूमा शक्तिपीठहरूको उत्पत्ति हुँदै जान्छ । सतीको अङ्गबाट एकाउन्न शक्तिपीठहरूको उत्पत्ति हुने क्रममा हामीले पढ्दै आएको स्वस्थानी कथामा यस्तो लेखिएको छ, 'पहिले नेपालमा पुग्दा गुह्यपतन भयो । नेपाल पीठ, गुह्येश्वरी देवी....उत्पत्ति भए ।' यस बाहेक स्वस्थानीमा नेपाल
शब्दको उल्लेख पाइँदैन । बाँकी सबै पीठहरू भारतमा रहेको कुरा स्वस्थानी पढ्दा थाहा लाग्छ । तर के यो नै साँचो हो त ? सतीको पहिलो अङ्ग नेपालमा खसेपछि अरू सब भारतमा कसरी ? के नेपालका शक्तिपीठहरू अतिक्रमित भएकै हुन् त ?
वैदिक वाङ्मयका ज्ञाता मदनमणि दीक्षितकै शब्दमा 'करिब १३०० वर्ष पुरानो स्कन्द पुराण लेखिएको ८०० वर्षपछि मात्र स्वस्थानी कथा लेखिएको देखिन्छ । ई.पू. ३०० (समुद्र गुप्तको समय) को इलाहाबादको स्तम्भमा 'नेपाल' भन्ने शब्द पहिलोपटक लेखिएको पाइएको छ । वैदिक र पौराणिक समयसम्म नेपाल र भारत एउटै सीमाभित्र पर्थे । लिखित इतिहासको कमीले गर्दा पनि स्वस्थानीमा उल्लेखित स्थानहरू नेपालमा पर्थे या भारतमा भन्नेमा कसैले ठोकुवा गरेर भन्न सक्ने स्थिति छैन । स्वस्थानीको आधार स्कन्द पुराण रहेको र सम्राट अकवरको पालादेखि स्कन्द पुराणमा नेपाल महात्म्य थपियो र स्वस्थानीका प्रसंग पनि यसैबाट लिइएको हो । पुराणहरू भारतमा लेखिए र यी पुराणहरू केही कालसम्म अंग्रेजको कब्जामा रहे । साम्राज्यवादीहरूले इतिहास बङयाउनकै लागि बौद्धिक सम्पत्तिमाथि कब्जा जमाउने हुँदा यही समयमा नेपालको धार्मिक इतिहासलाई पनि बङयाउँदै नेपालका शक्तिपीठहरू भारतमा रहेको भनिएको हुनसक्छ ।'
अर्का वैदिक ज्ञाता महेश्वर जुजु राजोपाध्यायसँगको भेट र उहाँले लेखेको स्वस्थानीको पुस्तकबाट प्राप्त जानकारीका आधारमा स्वस्थानी नेपालको मौलिक ऐतिहासिक धरोहर भएको पाइन्छ । जस अनुसार,
नेपालको टोखा चण्डीश्वरीमा दक्षयज्ञ कुण्ड, चण्डीश्वरी महाकाली र पशुमुण्ड दक्षको मूर्ति अझै पनि रहेको, सतीको पहिलो पीठ 'चरण शक्तिपीठ' देवीकुट थानकोटमा रहेको, यौनाङ्ग (गुह्य) पतन भएको गुह्येश्वरी, स्तनपतन भएको भक्तपुरको स्तन शक्तिपीठ जसलाई दुरुप्पःद्यः भनिन्छ, लगायत ४८ पीठहरू नेपालमै रहेको महेश्वर जुजुको भनाइ छ ।
थिमी कथाबाट लिइएको भनिएको गोमा, नवराज र चन्द्रावतीको कथालाई नेपालको वास्तविक इतिहास भएको र गोमाको माइती फर्पिङको ब्रह्मपुरमा रहेको, साँगा जरन्ताल वनेपाका शिव शर्मासँग गोमाको विवाह भएको, शिव शर्मा मरेको ठाउँ वनेपाको सुन्थानमा विचारी पाटीको अगाडि अझै पनि रहेको, गोमाले पुत्र पाएको ठाउँलाई गोमाडोल भन्ने गरिएको, चन्द्रावतीको माइती वनेपाको वुडोलमा रहेको र नवराज -न्वारनको नाम वन्हीराज) राजा भएपछि भक्तपुरको दत्तात्रयलाई राजधानी बनाएको कुरा उनले स्थापना गरेको तलेजु भक्तपुरको दत्तात्रयमा अझै छ र त्यसको पुजारी अझै पनि राजोपाध्याय बाहुन हुने गर्छन् । नवराज पनि राजोपाध्याय बाहुन रहेको कुरा त्यहाँ संकल्प गर्दा 'वन्हीराज कूल भट्टारक' भन्ने गरिएको बाट प्रमाणित हुन्छ भनेर महेश्वर भन्नुहुन्छ । त्यसैगरी कुष्ठरोग ग्रस्त चन्द्रावतीको उद्धार भएको ठाउँ शालीनदी पनि साँखुमा रहेको र त्यहीं आजपर्यन्त स्वस्थानी मेला लाग्ने गर्छ । यदि यी सब सत्य हुन् भने किन पुराण लेख्ने पण्डितहरूले स्वस्थानीलाई भारतीयकरण गरे ? कतै नेपाली भाषाको स्वस्थानीलाई बनारसका पण्डितहरूले लेखेका त होइनन् ?
स्वस्थानी कथामा शिवलाई एकातिर जोगीको रूपमा देखाइएको छ, त्यो पनि अत्यन्तै घिनलाग्दो जो भूतप्रेत पिशाच आदिले घेरिएर मशानमा बस्ने, खरानी घस्ने, बाघको छाला ओढ्ने, भाङधतुरो खाने, डमरु बजाउने, नाङ्गो, जता पायो उतै हिंँड्ने असभ्य र जंगली खालको संन्यासी । यतिसम्म नशेबाज र गैरजिम्मेवार रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ कि छलपूर्वक भए पनि सतीदेवीसँग बिहे हुने भएपछि पनि समयमा दक्ष प्रजापतिको घरमा पुग्नुपर्ने महादेव बिहेको लगन गुज्रनै लाग्दासम्म भाङको नशामा लठठएर आफ्नै बिहेको दिन बिर्सेका छन् र ढिलोगरी दक्षको घर पुगेका छन् । फेरि सतीदेवीलाई दुलहीको रूपमा घरमा ल्याएपछि पनि उनी एउटा गैरजिम्मेवार पति बन्दै सतीदेवीलाई झुपडी देखाएर 'भित्र जा' भन्दै आफू तत्काल बाहिरै भाङ खाएर चार दिनसम्म बेहोश बनी लडेका छन् । भाङै नशामा आफ्नी पत्नी पार्वती रावणलाई दिएर पठाएका छन्, जालन्धर पत्नी वृन्दाको सतित्व नष्ट गर्न विष्णुलाई आदेश दिएका छन्, पाँच वषर्ीया अबोध बालिकालाई ढिलो भिक्षा दिएको निहुँमा भयानक श्राप दिएका छन् ।
अर्कोतिर शिवलाई भोगी अर्थात् सधैंजसो यौनकर्ममा लिप्त रहने पुरुषको रूपमा चित्रित गरिएको छ । पार्वतीसँग विवाह गरेपछि संसारै बिर्सिएर कैयौं दिनसम्म पार्वतीसँग यौनकर्ममा लिप्त रहेको र अति भएपछि देवताहरूले अग्निलाई पठाएर महादेव-पार्वतीको एकान्त यौनिक जीवन बिथोलेको, पार्वतीबाट मात्र सन्तुष्ट नभएर कहिले मृगरूप लिएर मृगिणीहरूसँग त कहिले हाँसको रूप लिएर हँसिनीहरूसँग रमाएको घटना कथामा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । त्यति मात्र नभएर महादेवलाई अर्काका स्त्रीहरू लिएर हिंँड्ने चरित्रहीनको आरोप पनि लगाइएको छ । सतीदेवीको मृत्युपछि मानसिक सन्तुलन गुमाएर नाङ्गै हिंँडेका शिवको लिङ्ग देखेर आफ्ना ऋषिपतिहरूबाट यौन अतृप्ति खेपिरहेका ऋषिपत्नीहरू शिवको पछि लागेर गएकोमा ऋषिहरूले शिवलाई दोषी देख्दै उनको लिङ्गपतन हुने श्राप दिन्छन् ।
के आज करोडौं हिन्दुहरूले अत्यन्त आस्थापूर्वक पुज्दै आएका देवाधिदेव महादेव साँच्ची नै यस्ता गैरजिम्मेवार र घृणित चरित्रका थिए त ? किन यसरी प्रस्तुत गरियो उनलाई ? हुनसक्छ, शिव अनार्य थिए र उनलाई आर्यहरूले मनपराउँदैनथे । स्वस्थानीको आधार स्कन्द पुराण भएकोले र पुराणहरू बाहुन पण्डित (आर्य) हरूले लेखेका हुनाले यसरी शिवलाई गलत किसिमले प्रस्तुत गरेका हुन सक्छन् ।
महेश्वर जुजु भन्नुहुन्छ, 'स्वस्थानी कथा नेपालको आदिकालीन इतिहास भएकोले यसको कुनै लिखित प्रमाण छैन, नत कुनै शिलालेख नै पाइन्छ । त्यसैले श्रुति परम्परामा विश्वास गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ र यसैलाई स्रोत मान्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । पार्वतीसँग विवाह भएपछि महादेवले हिमालयसँग पार्वतीले आफूलाई पतिरूपमा प्राप्त गर्नका लागि कठिन तपस्या गरेको हुँदा उनको तपस्या र प्रेमको सम्मान गर्दै पार्वतीले तपस्या गरेको स्थानमा नै बस्ने इच्छा प्रकट गरे र शिव-पार्वती पाशुपत क्षेत्र देवपाटनमा बस्ती बसाएर बस्न थाले ।
महादेव र पार्वती श्लेषमान्तक वनमा घुम्न जाँदा त्यहाँका किरातहरू सारै फोहोरी देखेर उनीहरूलाई सरसफाइ सम्बन्धी ज्ञान दिए । 'फोहोर तिमीहरूको जन्मजात गुण होइन, तिमीहरू पनि सफा बन्न सक्छौ' भन्दै उनीहरूलाई नुहाउन सिकाए, घुमन्ते किरातहरूका अशक्त, वृद्ध र बालबालिकाको सुरक्षाका लागि झुपडी बनाएर बस्न
सिकाए, खेतीपाती गर्न र जडिबुटीबाट औषधोपचार गर्न सिकाए । यसरी महादेव र पार्वतीले किरातहरूलाई सभ्य बन्न दिएको शिक्षा नै मानवशास्त्रमा मानिसले पाएको पहिलो शिक्षा थियो ।'
यसरी एकातिर स्वस्थानीमा महादेवलाई असभ्य रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरेको पाइन्छ भने देवी पुराणअनुसार महादेवलाई सभ्य र ज्ञानीको रूपमा पाउन सकिन्छ । आखिर सही रूपमा महादेव (शिव) को थिए त ? भन्ने विषयमा थप अध्ययन जरुरी देखिन्छ ।
स्रोत: कान्तिपुर अनलाई जनवरी १०, २०१५ शिर्षक "स्वस्थानीका शिवजी"

Quran verses what Allah had said about Killing

I found fascinating discussion at the facebook about Islam and attacked in Paris by terrorists that took 15 lives (9 journalists, 2 policemen at Satiric Media House and 4 at Jewish Kosher Shopping Centre) that has has been accused to muslim people. One of the muslim men said in the discussion read holy Quran rather than just blaming to muslim /Islam. Of the many discussants two posted below verses from Quran.

Anjain Paene said when will you musliees learn to accept truth?
Qur’an 61:4 “Surely Allah loves those who fight in His Cause.” Qur’an 61:11 “Come to believe in Allah and His Apostle and struggle in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and person. This will be good for you…. Allah will give you an early victory.” Qur’an 8:5 “Your Lord ordered you out of your homes to fight for the true cause, even though some Muslims disliked it, and were averse (to fighting).”
Qur’an 24:53 “They swear their strongest oaths saying that if only you would command them. They would leave their homes (and go forth fighting in Allah’s Cause). Say: ‘Swear not; Obedience is (more) reasonable.’” Qur’an 4:74 “Let those who fight in Allah’s Cause sell this world’s life for the hereafter. To him who fights in Allah’s Cause, whether he is slain or victorious, We shall give him a reward.” Qur’an 4:75 “What reason have you that you should not fight in Allah’s Cause?” “What is wrong with you that you do not fight for Allah?” Qur’an 4:76 “Those who believe fight in the Cause of Allah.” Qur’an 4:77 “Have you not seen those to whom it was said: Withhold from fighting, perform the prayer and pay the zakat. But when orders for fighting were issued, a party of them feared men as they ought to have feared Allah. They say: ‘Our Lord, why have You ordained fighting for us, why have You made war compulsory?’” Qur’an 4:78 “Wherever you are, death will find you, even if you are in towers strong and high! So what is wrong with these people, that they fail to understand these simple words?” Qur’an 4:84 “Then fight (Muhammad) in Allah’s Cause. Incite the believers to fight with you.” Qur’an 4:94 “Believers, when you go abroad to fight wars in Allah’s Cause, investigate carefully.” Qur’an 4:95 “Not equal are believers who sit home and receive no hurt and those who fight in Allah’s Cause with their wealth and lives. Allah has granted a grade higher to those who fight with their possessions and bodies to those who sit home. Those who fight He has distinguished with a special reward.” Qur’an 4:101 “In truth the disbelievers are your enemy.”

Qur’an 4:104 “Do not relent in pursuing the enemy.”

Another guy possibly a muslim, Rana Vakar wrote Holy Quran What Says? Read this all
1- [[Murder is strictly forbidden]] Murder is strictly forbidden in Holy Quran. Quran 6:151 says, “And do not kill a soul that God has made sacrosanct, save lawfully.” (i.e. murder is forbidden but the death penalty imposed by the state for a crime is permitted). 5:53 says, “… whoso kills a soul, unless it be for murder or for wreaking corruption in the land, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind; and he who saves a life, it shall be as if he had given life to all mankind.” 2- [[No compulsion in religion]] Holy Quran says, “There is no compulsion in religion. The right way has become distinct from error.” (-The Cow, 2:256). Note that this verse was revealed in Medina in 622 AD or after and was never abrogated by any other verse of Holy Quran. Islam’s holy book forbids coercing people into adopting any religion. They have to willingly choose it. 3- [[Islam is defensive only]] Islamic law forbids aggressive warfare. Holy Quran says, “But if the enemies incline towards peace, do you also incline towards peace. And trust in God! For He is the one who hears and knows all things.” (8:61) The Quran chapter “The Cow,” 2:190, says, “Fight in the way of God against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! God loveth not aggressors.” 4- [[The killing of innocent non-combatants is forbidden]] The killing of innocent non-combatants is forbidden. According to Sunni tradition, ‘Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, the first Caliph, gave these instructions to his armies: “Iinstruct you in ten matters: Do not kill women, children, the old, or the infirm; do not cut down fruit-bearing trees; do not destroy any town . . . ” (Malik’s Muwatta’, “Kitab al-Jihad.”)

Sunday, 11 January 2015

"Aryan" supremacy in Nepal and India: Anti-Humanism

Human mind created differentiation between human beings have killed humanity in this world which we can see across the globe that some people who are white living in cold weather for long period of time, generation and generation Caucasian race originated from Caucasus mountain region are white in their feature who gave their own designation for name and fame as "Aryan" which means noble. They consider themselves as a superior human being than rest of the colour's people who are dark skinned, black especially those living in tropical region such as Africa although it has archaeologically proven that we all human race is originated from Africa around 200,000 years ago then migrated from there in different time period in different parts of the world seeking food, shelter and else for better life and livelihood. 

Historically we can look at in ancient India how indigenous, Dravidian people who are dark in their skinned, black had been enslaved considering them as "Sudra" which means slave, servant and expolited them for their hardwork effort and labour imposing varna (colour) system division of labour. Nomadic white people placed themselves on the top proclaiming self as a "Guru, teacher, priest, preacher, god child", red colour people placed them as a ruler and warrior and brown colour people as farmers, merchants, artisans. Similarly, they had assigned their Yoga "Job" and Quality "Guna" for four different groups. This is who caste system has been started in ancient India which has been firmly institutionalised by writing "Veda" an ancient Indian scripture to be followed and read mainly to priestly caste known as "Brahmins". Because of this kind of labour exploitation I suppose a Prince Siddhartha Gautam had born in 623 BCE who became Buddha. He was completely against injustice, inequality, false and blind belief and practices, human suffering, exploitation of labour, violence, ritualistic animal sacrifice performed by those priestly community
members and rulers which we can read and understand from his life stories documented in Buddhism scripture "Tripitak". After he became Buddha at the age of 35 he devoted his whole life to educate and awaken human beings in mind so that they can themselves help to be free from any dogmatic ideological belief of goddism and fatalism indoctrinated from their early childhood and making them belief them that they are helpless without an imaginative figure or idol called "GOD" that is under the control of priestly and ruling class people only who can bridge between so-called God and People.

Despite trying best for the last 45 years till Buddha died at the age of 80 still human suffering in Nepal and India we can find now. It is just because of the law of manu, "Manusmriti" which was written during Sunga Dynasty of India that ruled from 185 BCE to 75 BCE re-established and institutionalised firmly wiped out varna system by ruling and priestly class people know as "Aryan".

In the context of Nepal linguistically speaking we've to set of people: Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burmese. Indo-Aryan people who migrated from ancient India considered Tibeto-Burmese as Sudra thus treated them as Sudra and Vaisya as per the Civil Code of Conduct "Muluki Ain" written in 1854 by rulers of Nepal.

Although Siddhartha Gautam being a son of King considered "Aryan" but he never ever showed his supremacy that we can read from Buddhism scripture that is why his teaching has been liked and appreciated across Asia unlike Vedic teaching of Brahmins which has been confined to India and Nepal only. Anyway it is very interesting to read the evidence related Aryan and how they came to ancient India. I found an article titled "All about Indo-aryans, their history to present day, and how they are not the ‘rightist’ “Aryans” as the ‘West’ knows it" in the below link that says, 

Who Were the Aryans?
Aryans, or more specifically Indo-Aryans, make their first notable appearance in history around 2000-1500 BC as invaders of Northern India. The Aryans were semi-nomadic Nordic Whites, perhaps located originally on the steppes of southern Russia and Central Asia, who spoke the parent language of the various Indo-European languages.
Latin, Greek, Hittite, Sanskrit, French, German, Latvian, English, Spanish, Russian etc. are all Indo-European languages; Indo-European, or more properly Proto-Indo-European (PIE), is the lost ancestral language from which those languages ultimately derive. The “Proto” indicates that the grammar and vocabulary of this long extinct language, probably spoken up until 3000 BC, are a hypothetical reconstruction by modern philologists. Just as Romance languages like Italian and Spanish derive from Latin, so Latin derives from PIE.

Indo-European philology traditionally used “Aryan” both to denote a people, understood racially or ethnically, and the language group itself (“Aryan speech”), irrespective of the race or ethnicity of the people speaking its various branches. In the wake of National Socialist Germany`s defeat, the term fell out of general scholarly use in both senses, and “Indo-European” (IE) became the preferred designation of the language group, “Indo-Europeans” of both the people who occupied the original Aryan homeland and their descendants, who gradually spread out across Europe, much of the Indian sub-continent, and parts of the Near East. Racial nationalists are not, of course, obliged to adopt the timid PC-lexicon of contemporary scholarship, but we should be aware of imprecision of “Aryan” as a racial or ethnic classification.

Arya, meaning “noble,” appears in various Indo-European languages. Its plural form (Aryas=”nobles”) was probably the name the Aryans used to describe themselves prior to their dispersal, and it may survive in Eire (Ireland) and certainly survives in Iran (Airyanam vaejo=”realm of the Aryans”). The discovery of thousands of such cognate words in widely separated languages, along with similar grammatical structures, led philologists to conclude, early in the nineteenth century, that most European languages had evolved from a common proto-language spoken millennia ago by a distinct people who gradually left their original homeland in a series of migrations, carrying their language with them.
Traditionally Greek, Latin and Sanskrit were considered the closest languages to PIE, and much of the reconstructed Aryan proto-language is based on them. Modern Lithuanian, however, is the most archaic living language, closer to the original Aryan speech than any other. There is even an IE language, Tocharian, attested in Chinese Turkestan, which indicates that Aryans must have made an appearance in the Far East, a long-standing piece of linguistic evidence which has been recently confirmed by the discovery of the physical remains of a blond-haired people in China.

Perhaps the most famous proof for the prehistoric existence of PIE is the word for king: rex in Latin, raja in Sanskrit, ri in Old Irish, along with a host of other cognates. All are obviously variants of a common word for king. Since none of the peoples speaking these various languages were in physical contact with one another during the historical period — i.e. at a time for which written records exist — comparative philologists inferred that their respective languages must have evolved from a single proto-language, which is the only way of explaining the presence of the same word for “king” among such widely dispersed peoples. The Romans clearly didn`t borrow rex from the Irish or the Indo-Aryans; each had instead inherited their own word for “king” from a common ancestral language. Philologists can also, moreover, safely conclude that the Aryans must have had kings prior to emigrating from their original homeland in southern Russia. In fact a fairly detailed body of evidence about prehistoric Aryan political organization, marriage practices, and religious beliefs can be reconstructed on the basis of the survival of common vocabulary in the various extant Indo-European languages: They worshiped a sky-god, they traced descent through the male line, they raised cattle, they drank meed, they used horse-drawn chariots (which they probably invented) as weapons of war, etc. Even the red, white and blue/green that appears in so many modern flags may have an Aryan pedigree. It is likely a survival from the Aryan tripartite social division of their communities into priests (white), warriors (red), and herders and cultivators (blue/green). Aryans, or more specifically Indo-Aryans, make their first notable appearance in history around 2000-1500 BC as invaders of Northern India. The Sanskrit Rig Veda, a collection of religious texts still revered by modern Hindus, records (often enigmatically) their gradual subjugation of the dark-skinned inhabitants, the Dasyus: e.g. “Indra [=Norse Thor, Celtic Taranis] has torn open the fortresses of the Dasyus, which in their wombs hid the black people. He created land and water for Manu [=Aryan man]“; “lower than all besides, hast thou, O Indra, cast down the Dasyus, abject tribes of Dasas”; “after slaying the Dasyus, let Indra with his white friends win land, let him win the sun and water”; “Indra subdued the Dasyu color and drove it into hiding.”
With all-outstripping chariot-wheel, O Indra,Thou, far-famed, hast overthrown the twice ten kings …Thou goest from fight to fight, intrepidlyDestroying castle after castle here with strength. (RV 1.53)The Aryans were remarkably expansionist, and almost everywhere they went they conquered and subjugated the indigenous peoples, imposing their languages and (to varying degrees) their religious beliefs on the natives, and receiving in turn contributions from the peoples whom they conquered. Aryan invasions — or more accurately, a long sequence of different invasions by speakers of Indo-European languages — swept across Old Europe beginning as early as the fourth millennium BC, and over time the conquerors and the conquered melded into specific peoples with distinctive languages. Most of the contemporary inhabitants of Europe, along with their respective early national cultures, are the result of interaction between successive waves of Aryan invaders and culture of the particular White people that they conquered and with whom they later intermarried, and as a result almost all modern European languages are members of the Western branch of the IE family tree.The birth of a European culture, however, predates the arrival of the Indo-Europeans: The cave art of Lascaux, which some have identified as the first flowering of Western man`s creative genius, was the work of Old Europeans, as were Stonehenge in the North and the Minoan Palace culture of Crete in the South. A pan-European religious symbolism had already evolved, much of which was later incorporated into IE mythologies, including various regional adaptations of the ubiquitous Old European reverence for the Mother Goddess. Many of the principal figures in Greek mythology predate the arrival of Aryans, and during the course of ancient history Old European religious beliefs and practices continually reasserted themselves. [Image: Minoan snake goddess, from the Palace of Minos, circa 1600 BC]
Europe is European because the conquerors and the conquered were members the same White race, different branches on the same family tree; India is a morass of poverty because the bulk of the conquered, with whom the Indo-Aryans eventually intermarried, were non-White Veddoids. The lesson is obvious. Even today high-caste Hindus can still be identified by their Caucasian features and light skin, and the poorest and most backward parts of India are generally the darkest. As an aside, recent genetic studies have indicated that the Basques of Aquitaine and the Pyrenees are probably the purest form of Old Europeans as they existed prior to the arrival of Indo-European invaders. They evidently emerged from the invasions of Europe unconquered, and they remained sufficiently isolated to retain their own unique, non-IE language. Indo-Aryans From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Total population: ca. 500 million Significant populations in: Indian subcontinent, with minority populations on all continents. Language: Indo-Aryan languages Religion: Dharmic religions, Abrahamic religions, Zoroastrianism, Bahai Faith. Related ethnic groups: Iranian, Dardic, and Nuristani peoples. The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. [1] The earliest records of Indo-Aryans are in the Rigveda, and in references to the Mitanni rulers. The Indo-Aryans inhabiting northern India, the bearers of the Vedic civilization are sometimes called Vedic Aryans, precursors of modern Hinduism. The term derives from the Sanskrit word “Arya”. Pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans The separation of Indo-Aryans proper from Proto-Indo-Iranians is commonly dated, on linguistic grounds, to roughly 1800 BC[citation needed]. The Nuristani languages probably split in such early times, and are either classified as remote Indo-Aryan dialects, or as an independent branch of Indo-Iranian. It is believed that by 1500 BC, Indo-Aryans had reached Assyria in the west and the Punjab in the east[citation needed]. The spread of Indo-Aryan languages has been connected with the spread of the chariot in the first half of the second millennium BC. Some scholars trace the Indo-Iranians (both Indo-Aryans and Iranians) back to the Andronovo culture (2nd millennium BC). Other scholars like Brentjes (1981), Klejn (1974), Francfort (1989), Lyonnet (1993), Hiebert (1998) and Sarianidi (1993) have argued that the Andronovo culture cannot be associated with the Indo-Aryans of India or with the Mitanni because the Andronovo culture took shape too late and because no actual traces of their culture (e.g. warrior burials or timber-frame materials of the Andronovo culture) have been found in India or Mesopotamia (Edwin Bryant. 2001). The archaeologist J.P. Mallory (1998) finds it “extraordinarily difficult to make a case for expansions from this northern region to northern India” and remarks that the proposed migration routes “only gets the Indo-Iranian to Central Asia, but not as far as the seats of the Medes, Persians or Indo-Aryans” (Mallory 1998; Bryant 2001: 216). Other scholars like Asko Parpola (1988) connect the BMAC with the Indo-Aryans. But although horses were known to the Indo-Aryans, evidence for the presence of horse in form of horse bones is missing in the BMAC (e.g. Bernard Sergent. Genèse de l’Inde. 1997:161 ff.). Asko Parpola (1988) has argued that the Dasas were the “carriers of the Bronze Age culture of Greater Iran” living in the BMAC and that the forts with circular walls destroyed by the Indo-Aryans were actually located in the BMAC. Parpola’s hypothesis has been criticized by K.D. Sethna (1992) and other scholars. Vedic Aryans The first undisputed horse remains in India are found in the Bronze Age Gandhara Grave culture context from ca. 1600 BC (although there are claims[citation needed] of horse bones found in Harappan and even pre-Harappan layers). This likely corresponds to an influx of early Indo-Aryan speakers over the Hindukush (comparable to the Kushan expansion of the first centuries AD). Together with indigenous cultures, this gave rise to the Vedic civilization of the early Iron Age. This civilization is marked by a continual shift to the east, first to the Gangetic plain with the Kurus and Panchalas, and further east with the Kosala and Videha. This Iron Age expansion corresponds to the black and red ware and painted grey ware cultures. Ancient India The Vedic Kuru and Panchala kingdoms in the first millennium became the core of the Mahajanapadas, archaeologically corresponding to the Northern Black Polished Ware, and the rise of the Mauryan Empire, and later the medieval Middle kingdoms of India. Contemporary Indo-Aryans Contemporary speakers of Indo-Aryan languages are spread over most of the northern Indian Subcontinent. The largest group are the speakers of the Hindi and Urdu dialects of the India and Pakistan, together with other dialects also grouped as Hindustani, numbering at roughly half a billion native speakers, constituting the largest community of speakers of any Indo-European language. Other Indo-Aryan communities are in Nepal, Bangladesh and parts of Afghanistan. Of the 23 national languages of India, 16 are Indo-Aryan dialects (see also languages of India). The only Indo-Aryan branch surviving outside the Indian Subcontinent and the Himalayas is the Romany language, the language of the Roma people (Gypsies). The word does not have any racial connotation, and the skin color of the modern Indo-Aryan peoples varies from very pale to very dark, comparable to the full range of skin pigmentation found in humanity as a whole. Similarly many modern scholars have also disputed earlier claims about the early Indo-Aryans’ racial characteristics, who were earlier thought to be the “tall, blond, white race”. Unfortunately for the Hindus, today the word Aryan has become a stereotype for the white supremacists. Indian subcontinent Hindustani is an umbrella term for various dialects descended from the Prakrits of medieval India. The largest of these are the Hindi and Urdu languages. Hindustani speaking people inhabit modern-day Pakistan and northern India. During the British Raj, this region was identified as “Hindustan”, the Persianfor “Land of the Hindus”. Related languages are spoken all over Indian subcontinent, from Bengal to Sri Lanka and the Maldives. 
(Source: Who were the Aryan? access from