Saturday, 25 August 2018

Persian (Farsi) language words used in Nepali legal document

It is very interesting to learn how Persian (Farsi or modern day Irani) language has influenced to our rulers in Nepal. 
Recently the National Assembly member, Mr. Radheshyam Adhikari on the online newspaper "Setopati" dated 9 August 2018 (2075 Bhadra 9, Saturday) column has written on titled "अब महिलाले बाबु र श्रीमान दुवैबाट अंश पाउने" stated that the words "Muluki" and "Ain" both are Persian words borrowed by then rulers of Nepal in our legal code of conduct known as "Muluki Ain"  due to the influence of by then Indian rulers who were Muslim. Here is the excerpt from his article in Nepali language that says [1],
"मुलुकी ऐनलाई यसपटक हामीले संहिता भनेका छौं। किनभने, ऐन भनेको कुनै विशेष कानुन हो, संहिता भनेको धेरै कानुनको संगालो। त्यतिबेला ‘मुलुकी' र ‘ऐन' दुवै फारसी भाषाबाट आएका शब्द थिए। मुलुकबाट मुलकी भयो। एेन पनि उतैबाट आयो। भारतमा मुस्लिमहरुको प्रभाव थियो। नेपालको कानुनमा त्यहाँको प्रभाव नपर्ने कुरै भएन। त्यसैले दिल्लीबाट आएका फारसी शब्दहरु परे। यसपालि हामीले आफ्नै शब्द राखेका छौं- संहिता।" 
When I read and heard that some Indian scholars and advocates of nationalism have been asserting that the word "Hind" and "Hindu" both words are borrowed from Persian language not the origin from India but it has been derived from Persian I was bit surprised how any Indian or Nepali who are very much nationalists can borrowed words from Persia or modern day Iran. But later while I went through the ancient history of India/Indian subcontinent I realised that Persian King Darius I (c. 550–486 BCE) who was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered the lands surrounding the Indus River in 515 BCE. Darius I controlled the Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi before Alexandra the Great invaded to India. 
Here are the updated list, the references of English translations are on top of each section. Please correct me, if anyone Arabian, Turks, Persians, Indians or Nepali who are good in linguistics are reading this blog please let me know if there's a mistake in the list or origins of words. Thanks.
Persian words in Hindi
Cheese: PA-NEER
colour- rang
white - safed
aloof - dur
always      -  hamesha
-------------------------- ndi/index.html
certainly not            hargiz nahin   (hargez is persian)
ever                       hamesha
every moment         hardam
far                          dur
in                            andar
inside                      andar
near                        pas 
off                           dur
once                ek bar
again & again           bar-bar          (dobareh)
or                ya
perhaps           shayad
since (conditional)     chunki
twice                do bar
whereas            chunki
easy                asan
bad                kharab
empty                khali
fresh                taza
dirty                ganda
distant            dur
near                pas
hot                garam
honest               imandar       (Iman daar, someone who has iman)
dishonest           beiman        (someone who doesn't have iman)
wealthy               maldar        (someone who hass maal)
poor                garib         (gharib?)
healthy            tandurust
sick                bimar
new                naya (noe?)
young                jawan
narrow                tang
lazy                sust
smart                hoshiyar
kind                meharban
pleased            khush
displeased            naraz       (naaraazi)
urban                shahri
rural                dehati
smelling good          khushbudar
smelling bad            badbudar
not durable            kamzor
strong                takatwar      (like takat? it sounds persian but do we have takat?)
worthless            raddi
hard                sakhta
I                  main   & ;nbs p;        (sound like man in persian)
My                  mera (male)     (sounds like maraa which is short form of man raa in persian)
We                  ham          (hameh?)
Our                  hamara (m)     (hame raa?)
You                  tum         (toe?)
to answer              jawab dena    (jawab daadan, jawaab is arabic though)
to attack              hamla karna     (hamle kardan, hamle is arabic though)
to attempt              koshish karna    (kooshesh kardan)
to clean              saf karna    (saaf kardan, saaf is arabic)
to forgive              maf karna      (moaaf kardan, moaf is arabic)
to hate              nafarat karna     (nefrat kardan/ nefrat daashtan? , nefrat is arabic)
to help              madad dena      (madad daadan, madad is arabic)
to waste              barbad karna    (barbad daadan / barbaad kardan)       &a mp;n bsp;
---------------------------------------------------------- ----------
head            sar
face            chehra     & ;nbs p;    (chehre)
tounge            zaban     
arm/hand        bazu 
fingelnail        nakhun
leg            tan 
heart            dil 
blood            khun 
urine            peshab         (some old persian word? given aab is water in persian while pani is water in hindi)
house            ghar     
door            darwaza
broom            jharu
knife            chaqu        (chaghoo)
sky            asman
star            ek tara      (setare?)
river            darya
wind            hawa
tree            darakht
flower            phul         (is possibliy taken from hindi rather than given because fruit = phal in hindi)
potato            alu         (Aalou, interesting!!)
onion            piaz
salt            namak
meat            gosht
fat            cherbi     & ;nbs p;    (charbi)
chicken            murghi        (morgh)
cow            gae        (gaav)
tail            dum
name            nam
child            bacha
husband            shohar
wife            bibi
evening            sham (not sure if Shaam is persian or arabic so included in both sections)
week            ek hafta
month            mihana (just similar to persian, possibly not borrrowed)
dry            khushk
Wine                 sharaab
bread                naan
tambaakuu            Tobaaco
Vinegar              sirkaa
Black Beans          lobhiyaa
Flour                aattaa        ( sound very similar to persian Aard)
Almond               baadaam
Apple                sev         (similar to persian Seeb)
Grapes               anguur
Melon                kharbuujaa
Pistachio            pistaa
Plum                   aaluubukhaaraa  (aalooye bukhara!)
Tangerine            naarangii
Cinnamon             daalciinii      (similar to persian daarchin)
tasty                 mazedaar
Beetroot             cukandar     (persian choghondar)
Cucumber             khiiraa      (persian khiar)
Eggplant             baingan      (similar to persian bademjaan)
Pumpkin              kadduu
Vegetable            sabzii
angel          ; ;      farishtaa
alike          ; ;      ek-saa
animal        & ;nbs p;     jaanvar
abstinence          parhez
back                 vaapas
comfort,rest        aaraam
choice, liking       pasand
Complete, full          puraa          (persian por)
colorful          rang-biranga     (persian rang-varang)
colourful          rangiin
city                   sheher
dislike          naapasand
dangerous          khatarnaak
friend          dost
favorite          man-pasand
fragrance (happy smell) khushbuu
happiness           khushii
illness           bimaarii
less                   kam
man                   aadmii
medicine           davaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
man                    mard
marriage           Shaadii     (There has to be a relation between this and persian Shaadi meaning happiness)             
married          Shaadii-shudaa    (Shode is a persian word, again it's very likely Shaadi is a borrowed from persian)
neither... nor       na... na     (seems like a persian structure, specially since na is no/don't in persian)
office           daftar         (persian or arabic?)
opinion, view           khayaal     (persian/arabic?)
oneself           khud
or                   yaa
pain, ache           dard
perhaps           shaayad
prosperity           khush-haalii     (haal is arabic while khosh is persian)
salutation, greetings      aadaab        (persian/arabic?)
someone           kisii
safety, welfare      kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
thousand           hazaar
to buy           khariidnaa
to remind           yaad dilaanaa     (yaad is persian)
to emphasize           zor denaa         (zoor daadan/kardan?)
umbrella           chaataa     (not sure about the origins, similar to persian chatr, could it be arabic?)

Arabic words use in Hindi
------------------------------------------ dk/people/pfw/hindi/index.html
against (opposite)     khilaf
alas                afsos
at                taraf
but                lekin
certainly            zarur
if                agar
immediate            zaruri, turamt andar
oft / often            aksar
of course            albatta
oft / often            aksar
over (finished)        khatam
scarcely            mushkil se
sorrow                afsos
towards            taraf
truly                sahi
difficult            mushkil
clean                saf
durable            mazbut
much                zyada
right                sahi
wrong                galat
body            jism
rainbow            qusr quzah
morning            subah
evening            sham
year            sal
near            qarib
different        mukhtali
whole            mukamal

answer             javaab
advice             salaah
(a term signifying  respect)          tashriif
age               umar
book              kitaab
condition         haal
chair                kursii
custom            rivaaj
difference         farka         (fargh)
enough            kaafii
insurance         biimaa
medicine          avaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
meaning          matlab              
meeting         mulaakaat
office          daftar (persian or arabic?)
order                hukam
only                  sirf
opinion, view       khayaal (persian/arabic?)
paper                 kaagaz
patient          mariiz
question          savaal
request          arz
real, genuine          aslii
salutation, greetings      aadaab(persian/arabic?)
sir                                saahib
safety, welfare              kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
wait                   intzaar
total                   kul
to be known           maaluum honaa (maaluum is arabic)
that is, in other words     yaanii
vision            nazar
World            duniyaa

Here are also some words from Oxford English Dictionary:
In the Indian subcontinent: a small sum of money given as alms, a tip, or a bribe.
– ORIGIN based on 
Persian bakshish, from bakshidan ‘give’.

Biriani (also biriyani or biryani)
An Indian dish made with highly seasoned rice and meat, fish, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian biryani, from biriyan ‘fried, grilled’.

In India and Pakistan: an embankment or causeway.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian band.

In the Indian subcontinent: a domestic spinning wheel used chiefly for cotton.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian charkha ‘spinning wheel’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a light bedstead.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian charpai ‘four-legged’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a bamboo screen for a doorway.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian cigh.

In the Indian subcontinent: a chief priest.
– ORIGIN from Old 
Persian dastobar ‘prime minister’.

A chief treasury official, finance minister, or Prime Minister in some Indian states.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian diwan ‘fiscal register’.

The court of an Indian ruler.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian darbar ‘court’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a tailor.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian darzi, from darz ‘sewing’.

In India, a foreigner, especially a white person.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian firangi, from the base of Frank.

In the Indian subcontinent: a public place with facilities for athletics.
– ORIGIN C19: from Hindi ged ‘ball’ + 
Persian kanah ‘house’

In the Indian subcontinent: a soldier or police officer corresponding to a sergeant.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian hawaladar ‘trust-holder’.

· a follower of Hinduism.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian hindu, from Hind ‘India’.

A rich Indian fabric brocaded with gold or silver.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kamkab, alt. of kimk ‘damask silk’.

In Middle Eastern and Indian cookery: a savoury ball of minced meat, paneer, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian koftah ‘pounded meat’.

A small, round Indian flatbread, typically stuffed with meat or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kulcha.

A loose collarless shirt worn by people from the Indian subcontinent.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kurtah.

A sailor from India or SE Asia.
– ORIGIN C17: from 
Persian lashkari ‘soldier’.

In the Indian subcontinent: an open space in or near a town.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian maidan.

Mogul (also Moghul or Mughal)
A member of the Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled much of India in the 16th–19th centuries.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian mughul ‘Mongol’.

In Indian cookery: a type of leavened bread, typically of a flattened teardrop shape.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian nan.

In the Indian subcontinent: an embroidered rug made of felt or coarse woollen cloth.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian namad ‘carpet’.

A type of milk curd cheese used in Indian, Iranian, and Afghan cooking.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian panir ‘cheese’.

A pair of light, loose, pleated trousers tapering to a tight fit around the ankles, worn by women from the Indian subcontinent, typically with a kameez.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian Shalwar.

In the Indian subcontinent: a leader, a Sikh.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sar-dar.

In the Indian subcontinent: a man in a position of authority, especially a landowner.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sarkar, from sar ‘chief’ + kar ‘agent, doer’.

A lute used in classical North Indian music.
Persian surod ‘song, melody’.

An Indian soldier serving under British or other European orders.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sipahi ‘soldier’.

In the Indian subcontinent: an Asian head of a Lascar crew.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sar-hang ‘commander’.

In the Indian subcontinent: hunting.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian Shikar.

A large, long-necked Indian lute with movable frets, played with a wire pick.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sitar, from sih ‘three’ + tar ‘string’.

A pair of small hand drums fixed together, used in Indian music.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian tablah.

A tall conical cap worn by a dervish, a crown worn by an Indian prince.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian taj ‘crown’.

Tamboura (also tambura)
A large four-stringed lute used in Indian music as a drone accompaniment, a long-necked lute or mandolin of Balkan countries.
– ORIGIN C16: from 
Persian dunbara, lit. ‘lamb’s tail’.

A clay oven of a type used originally in northern India and Pakistan.
– ORIGIN from from 
Persian tanur.

Zamindar (also zemindar)
In the Indian subcontinent: a landowner who leased land to tenant farmers.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian zamindar, from zamin ‘land’ + -dar ‘holder’.

In India and Iran: the part of a house for the seclusion of women.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian zananah, from zan ‘woman’.

An Indian plant related to turmeric, with an aromatic rhizome.
– ORIGIN ME: from 
Persian zadwar.

An administrative district in India, containing several parganas.
– ORIGIN from Persian Nila ‘division’.


1. Radheshyam Adhikari, 2018. अब महिलाले बाबु र श्रीमान दुवैबाट अंश पाउने, accessed from

Tuesday, 21 August 2018

Pioneer of modern midwifery, Marguerite Le Boursier du Coudray

Being a passionate midwifery advocate in the country I have been asked by an influential leader and academic of nursing and midwifery in Nepal saying that like Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) who pioneered modern nursing who was the pioneer in midwifery. When she asked such question almost 6-7 months I was speechless and started to question some national as well as international midwifery academics but they also couldn't answer my concern thus remain mystery to me about the pioneered of modern midwifery.
However, that question always remained on back of my head wondering and pondering about the pioneered of modern midwifery then finally I got the answer while digging out the history of obstetrics and the pioneer figure of obstetrics.
Learnt from Nina Rattner Gelbart’s wonderfully readable biography of an almost contemporary French midwife, Marguerite Le Boursier du Coudray (1715–94), who was trained by an established midwife and certified at the age of 25 after a demanding examination before a panel of royal surgeons and the four sworn midwives of Paris, became “the king’s midwife” at forty. Commissioned by the government, she ceaselessly travelled throughout the French provinces in order to teach young women as well as established surgeons the latest techniques of delivery.
Similarly, in USA Martha Ballard (1735–1802) was the pioneer midwife who, coming out of a tradition of “social childbirth,” delivered babies and treated a wide variety of ailments in the newly settled wilderness of Maine.
However, don't know exactly in Britain who was the pioneered of midwifery but came to learn that William Smellie, who led the way in the 18th century in establishing obstetrics as an academic discipline in Britain went to Paris for further obstetric training but, dissatisfied with the teaching there, he returned to London and began giving midwifery courses of his own. His advertisements stated that a two year course of lectures cost 20 guineas, and that “The Men and Women are taught at different hours”.
The first British school of midwifery had been founded in London in 1725 and the first Chair of midwifery in Edinburgh one year later. In 1872 the Obstetrical Society of London began issuing certificates of competence to midwives and in 1902 the Midwives Act made state registration compulsory and set up a Central Midwives Board to regulate the profession. The Midwives Institute, set up in 1881, became the College of Midwives in 1941 and the Royal College of Midwives in 1947.
Reading the history of midwifery and nursing in fact in comparison to nursing, midwifery has been formally established earlier as a modern midwifery, establishing the first midwifery school in France by Ambroise Paré (1510–90) who founded a school for midwives in Paris. One of Pare’s pupil midwives went on to attend the French court and one of the babies she delivered—a girl named Henrietta Maria—became Queen of England at the age of 16 when she married King Charles I in 1625.

Saturday, 4 August 2018

Word Politics? or Confusion due to beclouded mind

“The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms.” - Socrates 

"The language of friendship is not words but meanings."- Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian 

In the human society the language that we use to communicate with each other has profound meaning. It is therefore, critical to understand the meaning of each and every word that we use. It is important to understand politics of word and its related fact, truth and reality about the use of word. When we look at the historical background of linguistic the word is mainly coined by male to write scriptures The word that denotes noun and verb are important to learn and understand because it has profound meaning in its application in day-to-day life that change people thoughts and perspectives. Either to dominate, discriminate, humiliate, oppress, suppress or promote equality and freedom and rights of an individual word play major role while writing authoritative or legally binding documents.In this regard, it is rightly said by an American Protestant clergyman and academic leader, Douglas Horton (1891-1968): "Thoughts are the gun, words are the bullets, deeds are the target, the bulls-eye is heaven." Similarly, Yehuda Berg, a former co-director of the Kabbalah Centre who happened to be a son of an American rabbi and dean of the worldwide Kabbalah Centre asserted that "Words are singularly the most powerful force available to humanity. We can choose to use this force constructively with words of encouragement, or destructively using words of despair. Words have energy and power with the ability to help, to heal, to hinder, to hurt, to harm, to humiliate and to humble." It is so because it might be due to that our thoughts represent by the words that we used as said by Joseph Murphy (1898-1981), American author and New Thought minister, ordained in Divine Science and Religious Science: "Your words are the body of your thought."

An Italian physician and educator, Maria Montessori (1817-1962) who is best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy said: "The development of language is part of the development of the personality, for words are the natural means of expressing thoughts and establishing understanding between people."

However, most of people despite being educated professionals they are not that much aware and informed about the term or word that they use. Or intentionally they just love to play politics to fool, bull and rule innocent and ignorant beings. Thus create unnecessary confusion to themselves as well as others. It is wise people move to clear the confusion that we have created in our mind due to our own ignorance and being born as a fool. In order to understand clearly it is important to clear our mind from beclouded thoughts and ideas as said by "Don't get confused be clear in your mind because Clarity is the counterbalance of profound thoughts" as said by a French writer, a moralist, Luc de Clapiers in the 18th century. Confusion is a symptom that makes you feel as if you can’t think clearly. You might feel disoriented and have a hard time focusing or making decisions. Confusion is also referred to as disorientation. In its extreme state, it’s referred to as delirium.

I have noticed that most of the academic and clinical nurses in our country seem very CONFUSED in their mind thinking that Nursing and Medicine are the same and Nursing has to be under Medicine as some of the nursing professor and senior nursing administrators and officers claimed which made me surprised.

As I came to realised that Nursing and Midwifery are two different professions same applies between Nursing and Medicine which are two different professions. Simply even from the terms "Nurse" and "doctor" that denotes nursing and medicine it has to be clear in our academic minds Nursing and Medicine are two different professions because of the two words etymology as well. The word nursing is derived from the Latin nutrire "to nourish". The word nurse has its roots in the Latin noun nutrix which means "nursing mother", often referring to a wet nurse (a woman who breast fed the babies of others). However, the word "medicine" is derived from Latin medicus, meaning "a physician". Similarly, there is no "Nursing" under the branches of medicine and we almost everyone knows that those who obtained Nursing higher education program are known as Nurse and those who obtained higher education program in Medicine are known as doctor. Then how any intellectual sensible being can consider Nursing is branch or part of Medicine and we nurses have to under Medicine. In fact, Nursing and Medicine have to work in collaborative effort that doesn't mean Nursing is under the field of Medicine. However, some of our higher level position holder Nursing academicians and clinicians assert and affirm saying that Nursing fall under Medicine. Such kind of argument makes me simile knowing their understanding of different terms use in healthcare professionals. For instance, we thought that Nursing and Midwifery are the same since we nurses also study midwifery but now most of us realised that it is NOT the same but two different professions. Similarly, Nursing and Medicine are NOT the same and Nursing doesn't fall under Medicine profession category. Therefore, Nursing doesn't fall under the "Institute of Medicine" which has been under Tribhuvan University many years. There should be separate Institute of Nursing and Midwifery under the Tribhuvan University like in the developed world Faculty of Medicine; and Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery they do have separately. Seems that under developed mind intellectual always love to create confusion because of beclouded mind.

Hard to eliminate discriminatory laws of Nepal due to flaw of the mindset

The discrimination and inequality among human beings have been changing its forms and sizes but the practices still remain in the society because it is very hard to give up since it has been in our genes transformed from one generation to another generation. 
Even present Constitution of Nepal that was promulgated in 2015 has play role in preserving, sustaining and maintaining the caste system and caste based discrimination in Nepal. I was surprised to see in the 21st century country code of conduct it has written in the 
Article 18. Right to equality: (3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
Article 42. Right to social justice: (1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
Article 84. Constitution of House of Representatives: (2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.
Article 176. Formation of the Provincial Assembly: (6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.
Article 259. Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission: (1) Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To carry out research and studies for protecting rights and welfare of Khash Arya, backward class, persons with disability, senior citizens, laborers, peasants, marginalized and minority communities, people of Karnali region and economically disadvantaged people,
Article 267. Provision relating to Nepal Army: (3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
Wonder where this  kind of racist, casteist, sexist and misogynist archaic Manubaadi (Manuism) mindset and ideology governed caste appears in Indian or any South Asian countries or any part of the world constitutions on this universe ?
It has proven that the Nepal's Code of Conduct known as Muluki Ain promulgated in 1854 AD (1910 BS) by Prime Minister Janga Bahdura Rana which was revised and updated by King Mahendra in 1963 AD (2020 BS) which is still effective till date also preserved, sustained and maintained caste system in a very subtle manner. That's the reason caste system and caste/ethnicity based discrimination is very much prevalent still in Nepal. When we talk about caste system and caste based discrimination we are NOT just talking about so-called Dalit. I said so-called dalit because the word dalit was first used in India by  Jotirao Govindrao Phule (1827-1890) who was an Indian social activist, a thinker, anti-caste social reformer and a writer from Maharashtra with the meaning of  "oppressed, suppressed,divided, split, broken, scattered ". It has proven that the word Dalit  was repurposed in 19th-century Sanskrit to mean "(a person) not belonging to one of the four Brahminic castes". However, it  was perhaps first used in this sense by Pune-based social reformer Jyotirao Phule, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes from other Hindus.
Therefore, dalit is NOT just those who belong to 4 varna (colour) last colour (black) known as Shudra but also to those all who doesn't fall under 4 varna system according to the law of Manu "Manusmriti". This is the reason WHY in Nepal even so-called Bhote which is the discrimination based on origin is very much prevalent among so-called Khas Arya and Newari Hindu community. If all so-called Janajati, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Taiwanese, Vietnamese (so-called Asian) are known as Bhote because of their ancestors origin land then definitely all Khas Arya and so-called present day Dalit who were known as Shudra should be also known as Indian/Bharati because of their ancestors origin land that belong to India.
In fact, Dalit is not just Kami, Damai, Sharki in the context of Nepal BUT also women, including all those who are oppressed, suppressed, divided, split, broken and scattered based on sex, economic and social class, origin, belief system/religion, culture, colour and origin. However, the extremist Manubaadi mindset think that dalit is only Kami, Damai and Sharki. This is their IGNORANCE because of their blind faith on Manubaadi education system which applies to the connotation of 
"A little knowledge is a dangerous thing, but a little want of knowledge is also a dangerous thing."
Samuel Butler (1835-1902)
Discriminatory belief and practice is the vein and brain of supreme most colour (white), class (top most educated group), caste (priesthood born from Brahma God mouth known as Brahmin), creed (Hindu belief system) and sex (Male). This is the reason WHY it can't be eliminated and wiped out from the society. 
In order to eliminate or wipe out caste system and caste based discrimination first of all human soft ware (Mind and mindset) has to be challenged to change. Otherwise nothing going to be happened for this centuries long discrimination and equality based on colour, class, caste, creed and sex that were coined by then ignorant fool educated males sitting inside the cave imagining ill ideas and thoughts out of blue in a very crazy manner.