Saturday, 25 August 2018

Persian (Farsi) language words used in Nepali legal document

It is very interesting to learn how Persian (Farsi or modern day Irani) language has influenced to our rulers in Nepal. 
Recently the National Assembly member, Mr. Radheshyam Adhikari on the online newspaper "Setopati" dated 9 August 2018 (2075 Bhadra 9, Saturday) column has written on titled "अब महिलाले बाबु र श्रीमान दुवैबाट अंश पाउने" stated that the words "Muluki" and "Ain" both are Persian words borrowed by then rulers of Nepal in our legal code of conduct known as "Muluki Ain"  due to the influence of by then Indian rulers who were Muslim. Here is the excerpt from his article in Nepali language that says [1],
"मुलुकी ऐनलाई यसपटक हामीले संहिता भनेका छौं। किनभने, ऐन भनेको कुनै विशेष कानुन हो, संहिता भनेको धेरै कानुनको संगालो। त्यतिबेला ‘मुलुकी' र ‘ऐन' दुवै फारसी भाषाबाट आएका शब्द थिए। मुलुकबाट मुलकी भयो। एेन पनि उतैबाट आयो। भारतमा मुस्लिमहरुको प्रभाव थियो। नेपालको कानुनमा त्यहाँको प्रभाव नपर्ने कुरै भएन। त्यसैले दिल्लीबाट आएका फारसी शब्दहरु परे। यसपालि हामीले आफ्नै शब्द राखेका छौं- संहिता।" 
When I read and heard that some Indian scholars and advocates of nationalism have been asserting that the word "Hind" and "Hindu" both words are borrowed from Persian language not the origin from India but it has been derived from Persian I was bit surprised how any Indian or Nepali who are very much nationalists can borrowed words from Persia or modern day Iran. But later while I went through the ancient history of India/Indian subcontinent I realised that Persian King Darius I (c. 550–486 BCE) who was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered the lands surrounding the Indus River in 515 BCE. Darius I controlled the Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi before Alexandra the Great invaded to India. 
Here are the updated list, the references of English translations are on top of each section. Please correct me, if anyone Arabian, Turks, Persians, Indians or Nepali who are good in linguistics are reading this blog please let me know if there's a mistake in the list or origins of words. Thanks.
Persian words in Hindi
Cheese: PA-NEER
colour- rang
white - safed
aloof - dur
always      -  hamesha
-------------------------- ndi/index.html
certainly not            hargiz nahin   (hargez is persian)
ever                       hamesha
every moment         hardam
far                          dur
in                            andar
inside                      andar
near                        pas 
off                           dur
once                ek bar
again & again           bar-bar          (dobareh)
or                ya
perhaps           shayad
since (conditional)     chunki
twice                do bar
whereas            chunki
easy                asan
bad                kharab
empty                khali
fresh                taza
dirty                ganda
distant            dur
near                pas
hot                garam
honest               imandar       (Iman daar, someone who has iman)
dishonest           beiman        (someone who doesn't have iman)
wealthy               maldar        (someone who hass maal)
poor                garib         (gharib?)
healthy            tandurust
sick                bimar
new                naya (noe?)
young                jawan
narrow                tang
lazy                sust
smart                hoshiyar
kind                meharban
pleased            khush
displeased            naraz       (naaraazi)
urban                shahri
rural                dehati
smelling good          khushbudar
smelling bad            badbudar
not durable            kamzor
strong                takatwar      (like takat? it sounds persian but do we have takat?)
worthless            raddi
hard                sakhta
I                  main   & ;nbs p;        (sound like man in persian)
My                  mera (male)     (sounds like maraa which is short form of man raa in persian)
We                  ham          (hameh?)
Our                  hamara (m)     (hame raa?)
You                  tum         (toe?)
to answer              jawab dena    (jawab daadan, jawaab is arabic though)
to attack              hamla karna     (hamle kardan, hamle is arabic though)
to attempt              koshish karna    (kooshesh kardan)
to clean              saf karna    (saaf kardan, saaf is arabic)
to forgive              maf karna      (moaaf kardan, moaf is arabic)
to hate              nafarat karna     (nefrat kardan/ nefrat daashtan? , nefrat is arabic)
to help              madad dena      (madad daadan, madad is arabic)
to waste              barbad karna    (barbad daadan / barbaad kardan)       &a mp;n bsp;
---------------------------------------------------------- ----------
head            sar
face            chehra     & ;nbs p;    (chehre)
tounge            zaban     
arm/hand        bazu 
fingelnail        nakhun
leg            tan 
heart            dil 
blood            khun 
urine            peshab         (some old persian word? given aab is water in persian while pani is water in hindi)
house            ghar     
door            darwaza
broom            jharu
knife            chaqu        (chaghoo)
sky            asman
star            ek tara      (setare?)
river            darya
wind            hawa
tree            darakht
flower            phul         (is possibliy taken from hindi rather than given because fruit = phal in hindi)
potato            alu         (Aalou, interesting!!)
onion            piaz
salt            namak
meat            gosht
fat            cherbi     & ;nbs p;    (charbi)
chicken            murghi        (morgh)
cow            gae        (gaav)
tail            dum
name            nam
child            bacha
husband            shohar
wife            bibi
evening            sham (not sure if Shaam is persian or arabic so included in both sections)
week            ek hafta
month            mihana (just similar to persian, possibly not borrrowed)
dry            khushk
Wine                 sharaab
bread                naan
tambaakuu            Tobaaco
Vinegar              sirkaa
Black Beans          lobhiyaa
Flour                aattaa        ( sound very similar to persian Aard)
Almond               baadaam
Apple                sev         (similar to persian Seeb)
Grapes               anguur
Melon                kharbuujaa
Pistachio            pistaa
Plum                   aaluubukhaaraa  (aalooye bukhara!)
Tangerine            naarangii
Cinnamon             daalciinii      (similar to persian daarchin)
tasty                 mazedaar
Beetroot             cukandar     (persian choghondar)
Cucumber             khiiraa      (persian khiar)
Eggplant             baingan      (similar to persian bademjaan)
Pumpkin              kadduu
Vegetable            sabzii
angel          ; ;      farishtaa
alike          ; ;      ek-saa
animal        & ;nbs p;     jaanvar
abstinence          parhez
back                 vaapas
comfort,rest        aaraam
choice, liking       pasand
Complete, full          puraa          (persian por)
colorful          rang-biranga     (persian rang-varang)
colourful          rangiin
city                   sheher
dislike          naapasand
dangerous          khatarnaak
friend          dost
favorite          man-pasand
fragrance (happy smell) khushbuu
happiness           khushii
illness           bimaarii
less                   kam
man                   aadmii
medicine           davaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
man                    mard
marriage           Shaadii     (There has to be a relation between this and persian Shaadi meaning happiness)             
married          Shaadii-shudaa    (Shode is a persian word, again it's very likely Shaadi is a borrowed from persian)
neither... nor       na... na     (seems like a persian structure, specially since na is no/don't in persian)
office           daftar         (persian or arabic?)
opinion, view           khayaal     (persian/arabic?)
oneself           khud
or                   yaa
pain, ache           dard
perhaps           shaayad
prosperity           khush-haalii     (haal is arabic while khosh is persian)
salutation, greetings      aadaab        (persian/arabic?)
someone           kisii
safety, welfare      kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
thousand           hazaar
to buy           khariidnaa
to remind           yaad dilaanaa     (yaad is persian)
to emphasize           zor denaa         (zoor daadan/kardan?)
umbrella           chaataa     (not sure about the origins, similar to persian chatr, could it be arabic?)

Arabic words use in Hindi
------------------------------------------ dk/people/pfw/hindi/index.html
against (opposite)     khilaf
alas                afsos
at                taraf
but                lekin
certainly            zarur
if                agar
immediate            zaruri, turamt andar
oft / often            aksar
of course            albatta
oft / often            aksar
over (finished)        khatam
scarcely            mushkil se
sorrow                afsos
towards            taraf
truly                sahi
difficult            mushkil
clean                saf
durable            mazbut
much                zyada
right                sahi
wrong                galat
body            jism
rainbow            qusr quzah
morning            subah
evening            sham
year            sal
near            qarib
different        mukhtali
whole            mukamal

answer             javaab
advice             salaah
(a term signifying  respect)          tashriif
age               umar
book              kitaab
condition         haal
chair                kursii
custom            rivaaj
difference         farka         (fargh)
enough            kaafii
insurance         biimaa
medicine          avaaii/davaa (not sure if dava is persian or arabic)
meaning          matlab              
meeting         mulaakaat
office          daftar (persian or arabic?)
order                hukam
only                  sirf
opinion, view       khayaal (persian/arabic?)
paper                 kaagaz
patient          mariiz
question          savaal
request          arz
real, genuine          aslii
salutation, greetings      aadaab(persian/arabic?)
sir                                saahib
safety, welfare              kheriyat (persian/arabic?)
wait                   intzaar
total                   kul
to be known           maaluum honaa (maaluum is arabic)
that is, in other words     yaanii
vision            nazar
World            duniyaa

Here are also some words from Oxford English Dictionary:
In the Indian subcontinent: a small sum of money given as alms, a tip, or a bribe.
– ORIGIN based on 
Persian bakshish, from bakshidan ‘give’.

Biriani (also biriyani or biryani)
An Indian dish made with highly seasoned rice and meat, fish, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian biryani, from biriyan ‘fried, grilled’.

In India and Pakistan: an embankment or causeway.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian band.

In the Indian subcontinent: a domestic spinning wheel used chiefly for cotton.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian charkha ‘spinning wheel’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a light bedstead.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian charpai ‘four-legged’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a bamboo screen for a doorway.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian cigh.

In the Indian subcontinent: a chief priest.
– ORIGIN from Old 
Persian dastobar ‘prime minister’.

A chief treasury official, finance minister, or Prime Minister in some Indian states.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian diwan ‘fiscal register’.

The court of an Indian ruler.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian darbar ‘court’.

In the Indian subcontinent: a tailor.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian darzi, from darz ‘sewing’.

In India, a foreigner, especially a white person.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian firangi, from the base of Frank.

In the Indian subcontinent: a public place with facilities for athletics.
– ORIGIN C19: from Hindi ged ‘ball’ + 
Persian kanah ‘house’

In the Indian subcontinent: a soldier or police officer corresponding to a sergeant.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian hawaladar ‘trust-holder’.

· a follower of Hinduism.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian hindu, from Hind ‘India’.

A rich Indian fabric brocaded with gold or silver.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kamkab, alt. of kimk ‘damask silk’.

In Middle Eastern and Indian cookery: a savoury ball of minced meat, paneer, or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian koftah ‘pounded meat’.

A small, round Indian flatbread, typically stuffed with meat or vegetables.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kulcha.

A loose collarless shirt worn by people from the Indian subcontinent.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian kurtah.

A sailor from India or SE Asia.
– ORIGIN C17: from 
Persian lashkari ‘soldier’.

In the Indian subcontinent: an open space in or near a town.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian maidan.

Mogul (also Moghul or Mughal)
A member of the Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled much of India in the 16th–19th centuries.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian mughul ‘Mongol’.

In Indian cookery: a type of leavened bread, typically of a flattened teardrop shape.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian nan.

In the Indian subcontinent: an embroidered rug made of felt or coarse woollen cloth.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian namad ‘carpet’.

A type of milk curd cheese used in Indian, Iranian, and Afghan cooking.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian panir ‘cheese’.

A pair of light, loose, pleated trousers tapering to a tight fit around the ankles, worn by women from the Indian subcontinent, typically with a kameez.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian Shalwar.

In the Indian subcontinent: a leader, a Sikh.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sar-dar.

In the Indian subcontinent: a man in a position of authority, especially a landowner.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sarkar, from sar ‘chief’ + kar ‘agent, doer’.

A lute used in classical North Indian music.
Persian surod ‘song, melody’.

An Indian soldier serving under British or other European orders.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sipahi ‘soldier’.

In the Indian subcontinent: an Asian head of a Lascar crew.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sar-hang ‘commander’.

In the Indian subcontinent: hunting.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian Shikar.

A large, long-necked Indian lute with movable frets, played with a wire pick.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian sitar, from sih ‘three’ + tar ‘string’.

A pair of small hand drums fixed together, used in Indian music.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian tablah.

A tall conical cap worn by a dervish, a crown worn by an Indian prince.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian taj ‘crown’.

Tamboura (also tambura)
A large four-stringed lute used in Indian music as a drone accompaniment, a long-necked lute or mandolin of Balkan countries.
– ORIGIN C16: from 
Persian dunbara, lit. ‘lamb’s tail’.

A clay oven of a type used originally in northern India and Pakistan.
– ORIGIN from from 
Persian tanur.

Zamindar (also zemindar)
In the Indian subcontinent: a landowner who leased land to tenant farmers.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian zamindar, from zamin ‘land’ + -dar ‘holder’.

In India and Iran: the part of a house for the seclusion of women.
– ORIGIN from 
Persian zananah, from zan ‘woman’.

An Indian plant related to turmeric, with an aromatic rhizome.
– ORIGIN ME: from 
Persian zadwar.

An administrative district in India, containing several parganas.
– ORIGIN from Persian Nila ‘division’.


1. Radheshyam Adhikari, 2018. अब महिलाले बाबु र श्रीमान दुवैबाट अंश पाउने, accessed from

1 comment:

  1. This book has a slow pace and a clear pattern. Persian always sounded an exotic language to me and so different from English. This book strives to make it easy to understand by presenting at a slow pace, and without getting me overwhelmed. The audio has both female and male voices with very clear and slow pronunciations. I tried other books for learning Farsi, but they were giving me too much information and too fast. This is definitely the best source I have found so far. Farsi Language